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Gender Equality/Inequality

Building Inclusive Cities

Citation:

Whitzman, Carolyn, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath eds. 2013. Building Inclusive Cities. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Carolyn Whitzman, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath

Annotation:

Summary:
“Building on a growing movement within developing countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia–Pacific, as well as Europe and North America, this book documents cutting-edge practice and builds theory around a rights-based approach to women’s safety in the context of poverty reduction and social inclusion. Drawing upon two decades of research and grass-roots action on safer cities for women and everyone, this book is about the right to an inclusive city. The first part of the book describes the challenges that women face regarding access to essential services, housing security, liveability and mobility. The second part of the book critically examines programmes, projects and ideas that are working to make cities safer. Building Inclusive Cities takes a cross-cultural learning perspective from action research occurring throughout the world and translates this research into theoretical conceptualizations to inform the literature on planning and urban management in both developing and developed countries. This book is intended to inspire both thought and action” (Whitzman 2013, i).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2013

The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal

Citation:

Onta, Nisha, and Bernadette P. Resurreccion. 2011. “The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal.” Mountain Research and Development 31 (4): 351–56.

Authors: Nisha Onta, Bernadette P. Resurreccion

Abstract:

Despite the growing number of studies and research projects on climate change adaptation, only a few have examined the gender and cultural dynamics of the adaptation process. Inequality has been identified as a major indicator of the vulnerability of individuals and groups; nevertheless, the gender and cultural aspects of inequality have not received much emphasis. The present article attempts to analyze the influence of gender and cultural relations on the process of climate change adaptation by presenting a study of Dalit and Lama households in the mountainous Humla District of Nepal. The inhabitants of Humla have been experiencing a shift in the monsoon season, a decrease in snowfall, and longer dry periods, with adverse effects on their livelihoods. The main focus of this article is to highlight the cultural, social, and economic dependency of the Lama and Dalit ethnic groups and to examine whether processes of adaptation exacerbate or alter gender inequalities and intercaste dependencies. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, gender, caste, Dalit, Humla, Nepal

Annotation:

Topics: Caste, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2011

Gender, Financial Deepening and the Production of Embodied Finance: Towards a Critical Feminist Analysis

Citation:

Roberts, Adrienne. 2015. “Gender, Financial Deepening and the Production of Embodied Finance: Towards a Critical Feminist Analysis.” Global Society 29 (1): 107–27.

Author: Adrienne Roberts

Abstract:

This article critically interrogates the ways in which gender equality has been linked to processes of financial deepening, partly via a global coalition of public and private institutions that have come together in recent years to promote an instrumentalist gender equality agenda. Corporations, banks and financial firms are playing an increasingly important role in shaping the contours of the global gender equality agenda and reproducing narratives regarding the need to (1) financially ‘empower’ women, (2) uphold women as the ‘saviors’ of national economies post-2008 and (3) ‘tap in’ to the productive (i.e. profitable) potential of women's bodily capacities. Drawing on Marxist and feminist theory, I develop an approach to theorizing the inherently embodied and gendered nature of finance that reveals the ways in which these tropes obscure the labour associated with social reproduction, promote the commodification of women's bodily capacities to produce, and support the differential production of bodies while simultaneously masking embodied forms of difference. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions, Multi-national Corporations, Privatization

Year: 2015

'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government

Citation:

Neaga D.E. 2012. "'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government." European Journal of Science and Theology 8 (1): 291-301.

Author: D.E. Neaga

Abstract:

There are a consistent number of studies showing that women are more vulnerable than men in terms of poverty and social exclusion. Romania is not an exception. Poverty and underdevelopment are major topics in the area of international political economy and, in the context of global economic crisis, international institutions like IMF and WB became more and more relevant. The main question to which I try to give an answer in this paper is: how the IMF policies/politics and those of the Romanian government challenged the issue of gender inequalities during the recent economic crisis? In order to do so I will concentrate my arguments in two major directions. First, I will underline the necessity of gender mainstreaming in international political economy and secondly I will analyze the neoliberal project and the Romanian case in terms of a deepening gender gap as a result of the agreement with IMF. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: neoliberalism, economic crisis, women, IMF, international political economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Romania

Year: 2012

Economic Restructuring, Gender and the Allocation of Time

Citation:

Floro, Maria Sagrario. 1995. "Economic Restructuring, Gender and the Allocation of Time." World Development 23 (11): 1913-1929.

Author: Maria Sagrario Floro

Abstract:

A significant aspect of economic life takes place in an area of production largely ignored in standard macroeconomic analysis, namely, the household production of nonmarketed goods and services. These household-produced goods and services are vital for social reproduction and human development. Moreover, there is a dynamic interaction between their production and that of the market economy as household members, especially women, must allocate their time between the two sets of economic activities. Section 2 provides some stylized facts about the nature and scope of nonmarket activities taking place within the household unit and how they relate to the market economy. Methodological issues concerning the measurement of the production of nonmarketed goods and services and of time-use patterns are discussed in section 3. Sections 4 and 5 examine the empirical evidence regarding the intensity of time devoted to nonmarket and market work by women, and the resulting consequences on their well-being as well as on the development of children. There are longterm serious economic and welfare consequences of these responses that make such a topic an urgent one for both academics and policy makers alike. A summary of the major points raised concludes the paper. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Economies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Privatization

Year: 1995

Gender in International Trade and Investment Policy

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2001. “Gender in International Trade and Investment Policy.” In Financing for Development: Proposals from Business and Civil Society, edited by Barry Herman, Federica Pietracci and Krishnan Sharma, 63-70. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Of the world’s 6 billion people, 2.8 billion live on less then US$2 a day, and 1.2 billion on less than a US$1 a day (World Bank, 2000). Most of these people are women, who today constitute the backbone of the unpaid, and a growing pool of the paid workforce that is directly affected by trade liberalization and foreign direct investment, as in export processing zones, agri-business and services. Women are also over-represented in the informal economy, sex tourism/trafficking, poverty and destitution. Women are the major cushion for domestic structural adjustment, as has been well documented in numerous case studies of structural adjustment programmes (see, for example, Afshar and Dennis, 1992; Brown, 1995; and Sparr, 1995). Thus, there are important reasons for integrating a gender perspective into the themes of financing for development, especially foreign direct investment, other private capital flows and trade. We see these as inextricably intertwined with the topics of debt and systemic reform. (Williams, 2001, p.63)”

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2001

Climate Finance: Why Does It Matter for Women?

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2017. “Climate Finance: Why Does It Matter for Women?” In Financing for Gender Equality: Realising Women’s Rights through Gender Responsive Budgeting, edited by Zohra Khan and Nalini Burn, 273-311. Medford, MA: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Ultimately, climate goals, priorities and the concomitant actions that are implemented to address the growing climate challenges concern the well-being, livelihood and lives of all citizens—women, men and children, across different socio-economic classes and life cycles. The preamble of Paris Agreement paragraph 7 exhorts Parties to the agreement, ‘when taking action to address climate change (to) respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity’ (Williams, 2017, p. 276)."

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economic Inequality, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2017

Gender Mainstreaming in the Multilateral Trading System

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2003. Gender Mainstreaming in the Multilateral Trading System. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“This reference manual is intended to serve as an information and training tool for policy-makers and inter-governmental and civil society organisations interested in building and enhancing their knowledge of the important linkages between trade and investment policy and gender equality objectives and priorities. It also presents recommendations on the key issues as well as the identification of strategies that could be utilised by different stakeholders (Williams, 2003, p. xv)."
 
Summary:
"The social dimension of trade policy and trade liberalization is now a common topic in many official trade fora. This discussion is proceeding with little or no attention to the different needs, constraints and interests of women. This handbook provides an integrated framework for a sustainable, propoor and gendersensitive approach to trade policymaking. It is an information and training tool for policymakers and intergovernmental and civil society organisations interested in building and enhancing their knowledge of the important linkages between trade and investment policy and gender equality objectives and priorities. It also presents recommendations on the key issues as well as the identification of strategies that could be utilized by different stakeholders. Each section includes case studies from Commonwealth countries." (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2003

Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2008. Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Financing gender equality in the context of development and democracy requires specific and focused attention to allocating budgetary resources for the education, health care, training, skills and entrepreneurial development that is necessary to improve the lives of girls and women and to promote the overall economic empowerment of women. In order for this to occur in a predictable and sustainable manner, there must be a strategic rethinking of frameworks of fiscal policy, public finance, debt sustainability, monetary policy, exchange rate management, financial market regulation, trade reform and the negotiation of trade agreements. Increasingly, these areas are no longer the sole preserve of domestic policy makers but are becoming interlinked with the operations of the broader multilateral trading system (MTS), global finance and global macroeconomic arrangements through formal processes of coherence between trade and financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO). This is also true of the harmonisation of aid under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (Williams, 2007, p. 3)."

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations

Year: 2008

Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict

Citation:

Melander, Erik. 2005. "Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict". International Studies Quarterly 49 (4): 695-714.

Author: Erik Melander

Abstract:

In this article, I examine to what extent gender equality is associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. I use three measures of gender equality: (1) a dichotomous indicator of whether the highest leader of a state is a woman; (2) the percentage of women in parliament; and (3) the female-to-male higher education attainment ratio. I argue that the first two measures in particular capture the extent to which women hold positions that allow them to influence matters of war and peace within a state. I further argue that all three measures, but especially the last two, capture how women are valued relative to men in a society, that is, the relative degree of subordination of women. Whereas female state leadership has no statistically significant effect, more equal societies, measured either in terms of female representation in parliament or the ratio of female-to-male higher education attainment, are associated with lower levels of intrastate armed conflict. The pacifying impact of gender equality is not only statistically significant in the presence of a comprehensive set of controls but also is strong in substantive terms. (Abstract from Wiley Online Library)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Quotas, Nonviolence

Year: 2005

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