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Gender Equality/Inequality

Gender and Resilience: From Theory to Practice

Citation:

Le Masson, Virginie. 2016. “Gender and Resilience: From Theory to Practice.” Working Paper, BRACED Knowledge Manager, London.

Author: Virginie Le Masson

Annotation:

Summary: 
This paper presents a synthesis of four case studies documenting strategies towards building gender equality through resilience projects. It draws on the experience of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in the implementation of the Building Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) projects: Mercy Corps (Uganda), ActionAid (Myanmar), Concern (Sudan/Chad) and Christian Aid and King’s College London (Burkina Faso). The analysis also reflects on discussions held during a writeshop that brought together NGO practitioners, donor representatives and researchers, to examine different approaches to integrate gender and social equality as part of efforts to build communities’ resilience to climate change and disasters. 
 
The papers seeks to document how gender inequalities manifest themselves in all four contexts affected by climate change; how gender is conceptualised in project theories of change (ToCs); the operationalisation of objectives to tackle gender inequalities; internal and external obstacles to the implementation of gender-sensitive activities; and drivers that help NGOs transform gender relations and build resilience. 
 
The four case studies describe how disasters and climate change affect gender groups in different ways and also underscore the patriarchal social norms that disproportionately restrict women and girls’ equal access to rights and resources. The resulting inequalities are likely to undermine women and girls’ resilience, and ultimately that of their households and communities – an assumption that underpins projects’ ToCs. Hence, projects that aim to enhance people’s resilience capacities have to recognise social diversities, inequalities and their inter-sectionality. If they fail to do so, they risk further marginalising and undermining the capacities of those who lack access to decision-making or experience discrimination. 
 
Based on lessons from NGOs’ experience, and challenges they face in the particular contexts where they operate, this papers aims to inform practitioners on how to draw on promising practices to make resilience projects inclusive and equitable. It also provides a set of recommendations to point out areas where further research is required to increase understanding of resilience to climate extremes and longer-term changes, and to suggest how donors and funding can best support efforts to build communities’ resilience. 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, intersectionality, Households, NGOs Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Burkina Faso, Chad, Myanmar, Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2016

Men, Masculinities and Disaster

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and Bob Pease, eds. 2016. Men, Masculinities and Disaster. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, Bob Pease

Annotation:

Summary:
In the examination of gender as a driving force in disasters, too little attention has been paid to how women’s or men’s disaster experiences relate to the wider context of gender inequality, or how gender-just practice can help prevent disasters or address climate change at a structural level.
 
With a foreword from Kenneth Hewitt, an afterword from Raewyn Connell and contributions from renowned international experts, this book helps address the gap. It explores disasters in diverse environmental, hazard, political and cultural contexts through original research and theoretical reflection, building on the under-utilized orientation of critical men’s studies. This body of thought, not previously applied in disaster contexts, explores how men gain, maintain and use power to assert control over women. Contributing authors examine the gender terrain of disasters 'through men's eyes,' considering how diverse forms of masculinities shape men’s efforts to respond to and recover from disasters and other climate challenges. The book highlights both the high costs paid by many men in disasters and the consequences of dominant masculinity practices for women and marginalized men. It concludes by examining how disaster risk can be reduced through men's diverse efforts to challenge hierarchies around gender, sexuality, disability, age and culture. (Summary from Routledge)
 
 
Table of Contents:
Foreword
Kenneth Hewitt
 
Section 1: Critical men’s studies and disaster
 
1.The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Thinking About Men and Masculinities
Elaine Enarson and Bob Pease
 
2. Masculinism, Climate Change and ‘Man-Made’ Disasters: Towards an Environmental Profeminist Response
Bob Pease
 
3. Men and Masculinities in the Social Movement for a Just Reconstruction After Hurricane Katrina
Rachel E. Luft
 
4. Hyper-Masculinity and Disaster: The Reconstruction of Hegemonic Masculinity in the Wake of Calamity
Duke W. Austin
 
5. Re-Reading Gender and Patriarchy Through a ‘Lens of Masculinity:’ The ‘Known’ Story and New Narratives From Post-Mitch Nicaragua
Sarah Bradshaw
 
Section 2: The high cost of disaster for men: Coping with loss and change
 
6. Men, Masculinities and Wildfire: Embodied Resistance and Rupture
Christine Eriksen and Gordon Waitt
 
7. Emotional and Personal Costs for Men of the Black Saturday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia
Debra Parkinson and Claire Zara
 
8. The Tsunami's Wake: Mourning and Masculinity in Eastern Sri Lanka
Malathi de Alwis
 
9. Japanese Families Decoupling Following the Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster: Men’s Choice between Economic Stability and Radiation Exposure
Rika Morioka
 
Section 3: Diversity of impact and response among men in the aftermath of disaster
 
10. Disabled Masculinities and Disasters
Mark Sherry
 
11. Masculinity, Sexuality and Disaster: Unpacking Gendered LGBT Experiences in the 2011 Brisbane Floods, Queensland, Australia
Andrew Gorman-Murray, Scott McKinnon and Dale Dominey-Howes
 
12. Indigenous Masculinities in a Changing Climate: Vulnerability and Resilience In the United States
Kirsten Vinyeta, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Kathy Lynn
 
13. Youth Creating Disaster Recovery and Resilience in Canada and the United States: Dimensions of the Male Youth Experience
Jennifer Tobin-Gurley, Robin Cox, Lori Peek, Kylie Pybus, Dmitriy Maslenitsyn and Cheryl Heykoop
 
Section 4: Transforming masculinity in disaster management
 
14. Firefighters, Technology and Masculinity in the Micro-management of Disasters: Swedish Examples
Mathias Ericson and Ulf Mellström
 
15. Resisting and Accommodating the Masculinist Gender Regimein Firefighting: An Insider View from the United Kingdom
Dave Baigent
 
16. Using a Gendered Lens to Reduce Disaster and Climate Risk in Southern Africa: The Potential Leadership of Men’s Organizations
Kylah Genade
 
17. Training Pacific Male Managers for Gender Equality in Disaster Response and Management
Stephen Fisher
 
18. Integrating Men and Masculinities in Caribbean Disaster Risk Management
Leith Dunn
 
19. Men, Masculinities and Disaster: An Action Research Agenda
Elaine Enarson
 
20. Afterword
Raewyn Connell

Topics: Age, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2016

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti, eds. 2009. Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications India.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives examines gender within the context of disaster risk management. It argues for gender mainstreaming as an effective strategy towards achieving disaster risk reduction and mitigating post-disaster gender disparity. Highlighting that gender inequalities pervade all aspects of life, it analyses the failure to implement inclusive and gender-sensitive approaches to relief and rehabilitation work. While examining positive strategies for change, the collection focuses on women’s knowledge, capabilities, leadership and experience in community resource management. The authors emphasize that these strengths in women, which are required for building resilience to hazards and disasters, are frequently overlooked. This timely book will be extremely useful to policy makers and professionals active in the field of disaster management and to academics and students. (Sage Publications India)

Annotation:

Table of Contents
Part One: Understanding Gender Relations in Disaster
 
1. Sex, Gender and Gender Relations in Disasters
Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandu
 
2. A Gender Perspective on Disaster Risk Reduction
Helena Molin Valdés
 
3. Let’s Share the Stage: Involving Men in Gender Equality and Disaster Risk Reduction
Prafulla Mishra
 
4. Organising for Risk Reduction: The Honolulu Call to Action
Cheryl L. Anderson
 
Part Two: Gendered Challenges and Responses in Disasters
 
5. Reducing Disaster Risk through Community Resilience in the Himalayas
Manjari Mehta
 
6. Gender Perspectives on Disaster Reconstruction in Nicaragua: Reconstructing Roles and Relations?
Sarah Bradshaw and Brian Linneker
 
7. Environmental Management and Disaster Mitigation: Middle Eastern Gender Perspective
Samia Galal Saad
 
8. ‘Everything Became a Struggle, Absolute Struggle’: Post-Flood Increases in Domestic Violence in New Zealand
Rosalind Houghton
 
9. Parenting in the Wake of Disaster: Mothers and Fathers Respond to Hurricane Katrina
Lori Peek and Alice Fothergill
 
10. Women in the Great Hanshin Earthquake
Reiko Masai, Lisa Kuzunishi and Tamiyo Kondo
 
11. Victims of Earthquake and Patriarchy: The 2005 Pakistan Earthquake
Azra Talat Sayeed
 
12. ‘A Part of Me Had Left’: Learning from Women Farmers in Canada about Disaster Stress
Simone Reinsch
 
13. Supporting Women and Men on the Front Lines of Biological Disaster
Tracey L. O'Sullivan and Carol A. Amaratunga
 
Part Three: Women’s Organised Initiatives
 
14. ‘We Can Make Things Better for Each other’: Women and Girls Organise to Reduce Disasters in Central America
Maureen Fordham
 
15. Women’s Participation in Disaster Relief and Recovery
Ayse Yonder with Sengül Akçar and Prema Gopalan
 
16. Work-Focused Responses to Disasters: India’s Self Employed Women’s Association
Francie Lund and Tony Vaux
 
17. A Climate for Change: Humanitarian Disaster and the Movement for the Commons in Kenya
Leigh Brownhill
 
18. Sri Lankan Women’s Organisations Responding to Post-Tsunami Violence
Sarah Fisher
 
19. ‘A We Run Tings’: Women Rebuilding Montserrat
Judith Soares and Audrey Y. Mullings
 
20. Women Responding to Drought in Brazil
Adélia de Melo Branco
 
Part Four: Gender-Sensitive Disaster Risk Reduction
 
21. Balancing Gender Vulnerabilities and Capacities in the Framework of Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management: The Case of Mexico
Cecilia Castro García and Luisa Emilia Reyes Zúñiga
 
22. Towards Gender Equality in Climate Change Policy: Challenges and Perspectives for the Future
Ulrike Röhr, Minu Hemmati and Yianna Lambrou
 
23. Engendering Tsunami Recovery in Sri Lanka: The Role of UNIFEM and its Partners
Chandni Joshi and Mihir R. Bhatt
 
24. Gendering Disaster Risk Reduction: 57 Steps from Words to Action
Elaine Enarson
 
25. Toolkit for Mainstreaming Gender in Emergency Response
P. G. Dhar Chakrabarti and Ajinder Walia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2009

Gender and Disaster: Foundations and Directions

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, Alice Fothergill, and Lori Peek. 2007. “Gender and Disaster: Foundations and Directions.” In Handbook of Disaster Research, edited by Havidan Rodriguez, Enrico Quarantelli, and Russell Dynes. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, Alice Fothergill, Lori Peek

Annotation:

Summary:
“Gendered disaster social science rests on the social fact of gender as a primary organizing principle of societies and the conviction that gender must be addressed if we are to claim that knowledge about all people living in risky environments. Theoretically, researchers in the area are moving toward a more nuanced, international, and comparative approach that examines gender relations in the context of other categories of social difference and power such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and social class. At a practical level, researchers seek to bring to the art and science of disaster risk reduction a richer appreciation of inequalities and differences based on sex and gender. As the world learns from each fresh tragedy, gender relations are part of the human experience of disasters and may under some conditions lead to the denial of the fundamental human rights of women and girls in crisis. 
 
“We begin by briefly discussing the dominant theoretical frameworks that have guided gender disaster research to date and seem likely to develop further. We then organize and review the extant literature around seven interrelated themes. The literature review is designed to highlight published research conducted on human behavior and social consequences in primarily natural disasters and thus does not include, for example, armed conflict and displacement, HIV/AIDS, and other related literatures. The third section of the chapter examines international perspectives in the gender and disaster field. Finally we point out knowledge gaps and some new directions we hope will guide the endeavors of those who produce and use knowledge about disasters” (Enarson, Fothergill and Peek 2007, 130).

Topics: Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2007

Gendered Violence in Natural Disasters: Learning from New Orleans, Haiti and Christchurch

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2013. “Gendered Violence in Natural Disasters: Learning from New Orleans, Haiti and Christchurch.” Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work 25 (2): 78–89.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Why are women so vulnerable to violence and death as a result of disaster compared with men? This article investigates how global environmental forces in the form of natural disasters from floods, droughts and famines to earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes affect women and men differently. Disasters are known to have direct and indirect impacts on gender-based violence particularly against women and girls, revealing a pattern of heightened violence and vulnerability in their aftermath. These gendered impacts are directly relevant to social work theory, practice and advocacy, which seek to promote social well being and to prevent violence in homes and communities during and in the aftermath of disasters. The article argues that women’s unequal economic and social status relative to men before a disaster strikes determines the extent of their vulnerability to violence during and after a crisis. If gender-based violence and women’s particular needs are not addressed in disaster preparedness, disaster recovery plans and humanitarian assistance, then women and girls’ vulnerability will increase. The article offers some lessons based on primary research of responses to the 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes against the backdrop of what we know about the responses to an earthquake of similar magnitude in Haiti in 2009. It draws implications from this research for social work theory, practice and advocacy, highlighting the importance of ensuring that future disaster planning and decision making is gender-sensitive.

Keywords: canterbury earthquakes, christchurch earthquakes, disaster, women, gender, haiti earthquake, violence, disaster planning

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Humanitarian Assistance, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, Oceania Countries: Haiti, New Zealand, United States of America

Year: 2013

Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals

Citation:

Bhadra, Subhasis. 2017. “Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 8 (2): 196–207.

Author: Subhasis Bhadra

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with their holistic perspective of development are focused on different issues of vulnerability. This article highlights the situation of women in disasters and the challenges in achieving the MDGs with special reference to India. It is accepted that there is no disaster without human engagement and that issues of differential impact on genders is an essential consideration for recovery. The international guidelines on disaster management and intervention have a considerable focus on gender equality, balance, mainstreaming, and sensitive programing, yet the situation is quite grim. India still lacks separate policy guidelines on gender aspects in disaster. In the twenty-first century, India has witnessed a series of disasters in different parts of the country. The author’s personal experiences of working in intervention programs of these disasters showed that gender vulnerability depends on various factors like the intensity of the disaster impact, local sociocultural perspectives, effective disaster intervention strategies, the specific focus on issues of women in training of personnel, and gender-sensitive disaster intervention programs in the community. In the context of the MDGs, while development has become a priority concern to end age-old inequalities in society, the added challenge of disasters needs considerable focus on gender inequalities to achieve the goal of gender equity.
 

Keywords: Disaster intervention strategies, gender inequalities, gender vulnerability, India, Millennium Development Goals

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2017

The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2010. “The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters.” Disasters 34 (1): 240-60.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in ‘multiple disasters’. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that micro-credit is a useful tool to replace women’s livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

Keywords: microcredit, multiple disasters, Orissa, vulnerability, women-headed households

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2010

Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India

Citation:

Pincha, Chaman. 2008. Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India. Mumbai: Earthworm Books.

Author: Chaman Pincha

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This study attempts to analyze the differential impact of the Tsunami on men, women, and Aravanis. It captures the experience of the most marginalized communities and of the women within them, i.e., experiences of unmarried girls, widows without children as against those of widows with children. Although the analysis focuses on women’s lives, it does so with the understanding that their lives operate within a system of gender inequalities and gender power relations. The study also focuses on understanding the role played by NGOs at the time of the Tsunami, as they were working actively alongside government agencies in the delivery of relief and development of rehabilitation programs. An attempt has been made to look at the gender mainstreaming strategies of NGOs, an area, which has hitherto not been systematically analyzed. This initiative by the gender researcher and her team was made under the auspices of Anawim Trust and with support from Oxfam America to understand and analyze the steps taken by NGOs to enhance the agency of women, vulnerable men, and excluded groups (such as Aravanis), with the purpose of cross-agency learning and replication. This work therefore documents both the good practices as well as missed opportunities with the belief that these will deepen our understanding of “what works” and “what does not” in integrating the SGNs and PGNs of both men and women in disaster response and preparedness” (Pincha 2008, 12-13).
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
 
2. Gender Differential Impacts of Tsunami 
 
3. NGO's Gender Mainstreaming Strategies: An Analysis
 
4. Toward Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming Efforts
 
5. Mainstreaming Gender in Disaster Management: Opportunities and Future Challenges 
 
6. Annex - 1
 
7. Annex - 2 
 
8. Annex - 3

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2008

Advancing Women's Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

Citation:

Abdullah, Hussaina J. 2014. “Advancing Women’s Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” In Feminisms, Empowerment and Development: Changing Women’s Lives, edited by Andrea Cornwall and Jenny Edwards. London: Zed Books.

Author: Hussaina J. Abdullah

Annotation:

Summary: 
“Sierra Leone’s reconstruction and peace consolidation policies and programmes are pursued within the post-conflict peace-building framework (UN 1992). Within this framework, women and gender issues have been articulated through a series of UN Security Council resolutions, such as 1325 (in 2000), 1820 (in 2008), 1888 and 1889 (in 2009), 1960 (in 2010) and 2106 and 2122 (in 2013). These resolutions specifically address women’s rights in post-conflict societies, their participation in reconstruction processes, their protection from violence, and the strengthening of justice systems. For instance, resolution 1325, the premier declaration on Women, Peace and Security, clearly links sexual violence as a weapon of war with the pursuit of peace and security, and outlines a legal structure for addressing these concerns at various levels” (Abdullah 2014, 67-68).
 
“To further consolidate the Women, Peace and Security agenda, the UN released two reports – ‘Report of the Secretary- General on Women, Peace and Security’ and ‘Report of the Secretary-General on Women’s Participation in Peacebuilding’ – on the tenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325. The outstanding element in the latter report, which looked at women’s needs and participation in post-conflict reconstruction and transformation and peace-building processes, was the stipulation that 15 per cent of all UN-managed post-conflict financing funds should support projects that ‘address women’s specific needs, advance gender equality or empower women’ (UN 2010). While this framework has a transformatory edge, it does not go far enough to ensure women’s empowerment. Its application in post-conflict Sierra Leone is disjointed and full of loopholes that can be used to roll back whatever gains women have achieved. This chapter explores and reflects on this outcome” (68-69).

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2014

Women and the African Peace and Security Architecture

Citation:

Abdullah, Hussaina J. 2017."Women and the African Peace and Security Architecture." African Peacebuilding Network Working Paper 12, Social Science Research Council, New York.

Author: Hussaina J. Abdullah

Annotation:

Summary: 
"The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of how women’s rights in situations of armed conflict and post-conflict contexts have been mainstreamed into various mechanisms, structures, and instruments of the AU’s African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). As part of this exercise, this study conducts a critical examination of the links between APSA’s goal of promoting peace and security and the AU’s Gender Equality Architecture’s (GEA) goal of promoting and protecting the rights of women on the continent.
 
"This paper argues that while the AU has shown its commitment to the issues of peace and security and gender equality through the creation of various structures and the adoption of legal instruments to push through its agenda, the lack of a well-coordinated organizational strategy integrating these two sectors has resulted in limited success in achieving its goals and actualizing its vision. Furthermore, although the AU’s peace and security and gender equality agendas are closely linked to the global women, peace, and security (WPS) discourse, there is very little synergy in the institution’s engagement with and articulation of the global framework. As a result, the expected transformation in the lives of African women in conflict and post- conflict settings has not been realized. Women are still subjected to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and other human rights violations and marginalized in peace negotiations and post-war reconstruction processes; simultaneously, impunity for SGBV and other crimes is still rife in these societies. To move the institution’s gender equality agenda forward, a comprehensive gender-responsive organizational strategy and culture are needed to strengthen inter-departmental cooperation at all levels. This will encourage programs and policies that are in sync with the institution’s broad vision of a continent where women and men have equal access to opportunities, rights, and resources.
 
"This paper outlines the significant progress made at the country level as well as the gaps regarding women’s safety and security during and after armed conflict, including their participation in peace processes and post- conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding. It provides an assessment of the achievements and limitations of the gender mainstreaming process,2 particularly in relation to practical measures for promoting gender equality in the APSA, alongside those for implementing policies for the promotion of peace and security within the framework of the Gender Equality Architecture (GEA). It concludes with a set of recommendations for AU policymakers and civil society practitioners" (Abdullah 2017, 1-2).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, peace and security, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa

Year: 2017

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