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Gender Budgeting

Gender and Macroeconomic Policy

Citation:

Raj, Nallari, Griffith Breda, and the World Bank. 2011. Gender and Macroeconomic Policy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Authors: Raj Nallari, Breda Griffith, World Bank

Annotation:

Summary:
This report aims to show how macroeconomic policies create differential opportunities for women and men. This volume comprises nine chapters covering four broad themes: gender as a category of analysis in macroeconomics; the implications of gender for macroeconomic aggregates, in particular consumption and economic growth; the role of gender in the labor market, globalization, and access to credit; and gender budgeting. Chapters one and two address the first theme. Chapter one focuses on the macroeconomic cost to growth and development that arises from rigid gender roles and associated gender asymmetries. Chapter two documents the progress made in gender mainstreaming by highlighting developments in data collection and monitoring that have moved beyond simply disaggregating data by male and female. Chapters three and four cover the second theme. Chapter three considers the role of gender relations in the macroeconomic aggregates of consumption, savings, investment, and government expenditure and the implications for macroeconomic policy in these areas. Chapter four examines gender relations and economic growth. Chapters five through seven focus on the third theme. Chapter five examines the labor market. Chapter six examines how globalization affects gender relations, particularly employment. Chapter seven concentrates on women's access to finance and documents gender asymmetries in this market. Chapter eight, on the fourth theme, highlights the impact fiscal policies have on gender relations. It documents how policy can be made more gender specific and reports on the progress made by countries that have adopted gender-responsive government budgeting. Chapter nine summarizes what is known about gender and macroeconomic policy, noting areas in which the literature is well developed as well as areas that require further research and study (Summary from WorldCat).
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender Budgeting, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2011

Budgets with a Gender Perspective at Federal and State Levels in Mexico

Citation:

UN Women, and Mexico’s National Women’s Institute (INMUJERES). 2015. “Budgets with a Gender Perspective at Federal and State Levels in Mexico.” UN Women.

Authors: UN Women, Mexico's National Women's Institute

Abstract:

"Mexico's National Women's Institute (INMUJERES) and UN Women jointly implement the project "Institutionalization and mainstreaming of a gender perspective in public budgets in Mexico at state and municipal levels". The project involves collaboration with states and municipalities to incorporate a gender perspective in their processes of planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of public programmes, so as to achieve equality of outcomes between women and men.
 
Gender-responsive public budgets are an indicator of government commitment to women's rights and gender equality at the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal) and one of the most effective ways to accelerate progress towards more equal societies with higher levels of well-being.
 
"Budgets with a gender perspective at federal and state levels in Mexico” summarizes the country's experience in mainstreaming gender in the public budget, with reference to international conventions and treaties signed by the country. It also provides an overview of the national regulatory framework for budgeting with a gender perspective. In addition, it presents what has been done at both the federal and state level to mainstream gender in policy frameworks at the state level" (UN Women).

Topics: Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2015

The Influence of Gender Budgeting in Indian States on Gender Inequality and Fiscal Spending

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G., and Asad Zaman. 2016. “The Influence of Gender Budgeting in Indian States on Gender Inequality and Fiscal Spending.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Authors: Janet G. Stotsky, Asad Zaman

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of gender budgeting in India on gender inequality and fiscal spending. Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting in which governments use fiscal policies and administration to address gender inequality and women’s advancement. There is little quantitative study of its impact. Indian states offer a relatively unique framework for assessing the effect of gender budgeting. States with gender budgeting efforts have made more progress on gender equality in primary school enrollment than those without, though economic growth appears insufficient to generate equality on its own. The implications of gender budgeting for fiscal spending were more ambiguous.

Keywords: Fiscal policy, gender budgeting, gender inequality, Indian states

Topics: Economies, Education, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G., Lisa Kolovich, and Suhaib Kebhaj. 2016. “Sub-Saharan Africa: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Authors: Janet G. Stotsky , Lisa Kolovich, Suhaib Kebhaj

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an initiative to use fiscal policy and administration to address gender inequality and women's advancement. A large number of sub-Saharan African countries have adopted gender budgeting. Two countries that have achieved notable success in their efforts are Uganda and Rwanda, both of which have integrated gender-oriented goals into budget policies, programs, and processes in fundamental ways. Other countries have made more limited progress in introducing gender budgeting into their budget-making. Leadership by the ministry of finance is critical for enduring effects, although nongovernmental organizations and parliamentary bodies in sub-Saharan Africa play an essential role in advocating for gender budgeting.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, gender inequality, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda, Uganda

Year: 2016

Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G. 2016. “Gender Budgeting: Fiscal Context and Current Outcomes.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Author: Janet G. Stotsky

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting that uses fiscal policy and administration to promote gender equality and girls’ and women’s development. This paper posits that, properly designed, gender budgeting improves government budgeting, and it places budgeting for this purpose in the context of sound budgeting principles and practices. The paper provides an overview of the policies and practices associated with gender budgeting as they have emerged across the world, as well as examples of the most prominent efforts in every region of the world. Finally, it suggests what can be learned from these efforts.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal policy, fiscal administration

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Budgeting, Governance

Year: 2016

Europe: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Quinn, Sheila. 2016. “Europe: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/155. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Author: Sheila Quinn

Abstract:

This paper surveys European gender budgeting efforts, which have enjoyed sustained support for more than a decade and a half. In a number of countries, gender budgeting led to significant changes in budget legislation and administrative practices. In some countries, it is also possible to tie gender budgeting efforts to expenditure and revenue policy reforms. At a time of continued fiscal austerity in Europe, gender budgeting can help inform fiscal policies to ensure gender-related goals are met. Civil society has played an active role in advocating for effective gender budgeting.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal policies & administration, Europe, gender inequality

Topics: Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Europe

Year: 2016

Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Perez Fragoso, Lucia, and Corina Rodriguez Enriquez. 2016. “Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/153. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lucia Perez Fragoso, Corina Rodriguez Enriquez

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to fiscal policy and administration that integrates considerations of women's equality and advancement into the budget. Latin American countries have undertaken diverse gender budgeting initiatives, most of them addressing public expenditures. This paper surveys and assesses some key initiatives, including those in Mexico, Mexico City, Ecuador, Bolivia, and El Salvador, and briefly summarizes others. The five key initiatives offer different perspectives on how countries approach gender budgeting. We find that these initiatives are contributing to the reduction of gender inequality and the advancement of women in Latin America, though there is scope to strengthen them.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, Latin America, gender inequality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico

Year: 2016

Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Kolovich, Lisa, and Sakina Shibuya. 2016. “Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/151. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lisa Kolovich , Sakina Shibuya

Abstract:

Gender budgeting uses fiscal policies to promote gender equality and women's advancement, but is struggling to take hold in the Middle East and Central Asia. We provide an overview of two gender budgeting efforts in the region--Morocco and Afghanistan. Achievements in these two countries include increasing female primary and secondary education enrollment rates and reducing maternal mortality. But the region not only needs to use fiscal policies for women's advancement, but also reform tax and financial laws, enforce laws that assure women's safety in public, and change laws that prevent women from taking advantage of employment opportunities.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, gender inequality, middle east, Central Asia

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Central Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Morocco

Year: 2016

Gender Budgeting in G7 Countries

Citation:

International Monetary Fund. 2017. “Gender Budgeting in G7 Countries.” Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund

Author: International Monetary Fund

Annotation:

"Executive Summary:
At the request of the Italian Presidency of the G7, the IMF has prepared a paper on gender-budgeting as a contribution to the G7 initiative on equality. The paper provides an overview of gender-responsive budgeting concepts and practices in the G7 countries. It summarizes recent trends in gender equality in G7 and advanced countries, noting that while equality has improved overall, exceptions and gaps remain.
 
Recognizing that many fiscal policies have gender-related implications, this paper:
Sets out the main fiscal policy instruments, both expenditure and tax, that have a significant impact on gender equality.
Provides a conceptual framework for the public financial management (PFM) institutions that play an enabling role in implementing gender-responsive fiscal policies. These instruments include gender budget statements, gender impact assessments, performance-related budget frameworks, and gender audits. Ministries of finance have an especially important role in promoting and coordinating gender budgeting, and associated analytical tools.
Provides an assessment of the status of gender budgeting in the G7 countries. In preparing the paper, the IMF carried out a survey of PFM institutions and practices in the G7, as well as in three comparator countries that are relatively strong performers in developing gender-responsive budgeting (Austria, Belgium, and Spain). This information was complemented by other sources, including recent studies by the OECD and the World Bank.
 
The main policy implications and conclusions of the paper include:
Well-structured fiscal policies and sound PFM systems have the potential to contribute to gender equality, furthering the substantial progress already made by the G7 countries.
While G7 countries have made effective use of a wide range of fiscal and non-fiscal policies to reduce gender inequalities, there has generally been less progress in developing effective gender-specific PFM institutions; embedding a gender dimension in the normal budgeting and policy-making routines varies across G7 countries and is not done systematically.
Fiscal policy instruments of relevance to increasing gender equality include the use of tax and tax benefits to increase the supply of female labor, improved family benefits, subsidized child-care, other social benefits that increase the net return to women’s work, and incentives for businesses to encourage the hiring of women" (IMF)

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, United States of America

Year: 2107

Gender Budgeting in OECD Countries

Citation:

Downes, Ronnie, Lisa Von Trapp, and Scherie Nicol. 2017. "Gender Budgeting in OECD Countries." OECD Journal on Budgeting. 16 (3): 1-37. 

Authors: Ronnie Downes, Lisa Von Trapp, Scherie Nicol

Abstract:

Gender gaps persist in education, employment, entrepreneurship and public life opportunities and outcomes. Gender budgeting involves using the tools, techniques and procedures of the budget cycle in a systematic way to promote equality. Responses to the 2016 OECD Survey of Gender Budgeting Practices show that almost half of OECD countries have introduced, plan to introduce or are actively considering the introduction of gender budgeting. The OECD analysis demonstrates that a wide variety of gender budgeting approaches are practiced. Only half of OECD countries can currently point to specific examples of impact, however a wider range of impacts may become more evident in the future since the introduction of gender budgeting is relatively recent in many countries. Useful areas for further study and policy action include: the routine availability of gender-disaggregated data; embedding of gender specific approaches within the normal annual routines of budgeting; and complementing executive-led approaches with external quality assurance.

Keywords: gender budgeting, gender equality, budgetary process, budgeting practices

Topics: Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations

Year: 2017

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