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Gender

Women, Gender and Protest: Contesting Oil Palm Plantation Expansion in Indonesia

Citation:

Morgan, Miranda. 2017. “Women, Gender and Protest: Contesting Oil Palm Plantation Expansion in Indonesia.” The Journal of Peasant Studies.

Author: Miranda Morgan

Abstract:

This study explores the conditions that lead to the participation of rural women in protest. Drawing from a case study in Indonesia, it finds that gender relations are integral to shaping the motivations and political opportunities that lead to women’s decisions to participate in protests around land. It also argues that gender relations are not fixed. Individual actors play an influential role in opening up new political opportunities for women, who are discursively cast as apolitical. Despite dominant gender relations that tend to exclude women from politics, the presence of women in protest opens up the possibility that rural struggles around land and dispossession, though ostensibly free of explicit gender concerns, may simultaneously serve as sites of struggle over gender as well. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year:

¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen D, and Jennifer Twyman. “¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador.” Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 11, no. 3 (2014): 425–440.

Authors: Carmen D. Deere, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Este trabajo investiga si las mujeres propietarias de parcelas participan en las decisiones agrícolas sobre ellas. Con base en una muestra nacional de Ecuador, el análisis demuestra que la gran mayoría de mujeres dueñas participan activamente en la conducción de sus parcelas, sean éstas propiedades de ellas de manera individual o en conjunto con su pareja. También revela que hay diferencias en el nivel de participación de las mujeres, dependiendo de su estado civil o situación marital (si son casadas o unidas en comparación con jefas de hogar solteras, separadas, divorciadas o viudas) y de la forma de la propiedad. Además, su participación varía según la decisión agrícola bajo consideración. De todos modos, nuestro análi­sis conduce a una conclusión sobresaliente: los datos censales proporcionan una visión distorsionada de la agricultura fa­miliar porque no se toma en cuenta que las decisiones agrí­colas son tomadas frecuentemente por la pareja y conllevan a una subestimación de la participación de las mujeres casadas/unidas como agricultoras. (Abstract from original source)
 
This study investigates whether women landowners participate in the agricultural decisions about their plots. Based on a national sample from Ecuador, the analysis shows that the large majority of women owners participate actively in the conduction of their plots, whether they are their property individually or jointly with their couple. It also reveals that there are differences in the level of participation of women, depending on their marital status (whether they are married or united, in comparison to heads of households who are single, separated, divorced or widows) and the form of property. Also, their participation varies depending on the agricultural decision under consideration. In any case, our analysis leads to an outstanding conclusion: the census data provide a distorted vision of family agriculture because they do not take into account that agricultural decisions are frequently made by the couple, and they lead to an underestimation of the participation of women married/united as agricultural producers. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Reforma agraria: Representaciones de género y política de tierras en Colombia

Citation:

Sañudo Pazos, Maria Fernanda. “Reforma agraria: Representaciones de género y política de tierras en Colombia.” Revista Interdisciplinaria de Estudios de Género de El Colegio de México 2, no. 3 (2016): 102–125.

 

Author: María Fernanda Sañudo Pazos

Abstract:

A través del análisis de los procesos de negociación para la incorporación del género en la política de tierras en Colombia, en específico de la Ley 30 de 1988 y de la Ley 160 de 1994, se evidencia cómo operaron las representaciones de género que encarnaron diferentes agentes (organizaciones campesinas mixtas, organizaciones de mujeres campesinas, funcionarios y funcionarias estatales), en el posicionamiento de los intereses de las mujeres rurales frente al acceso a la tierra y en los logros que alcanzaron. De manera más precisa, se visibiliza cómo las construcciones y elaboraciones simbólicas sobre los roles de hombres y mujeres campesinos que los agentes encarnan han sido determinantes en el tipo de reconocimiento, formal y de hecho, del derecho a la propiedad de la tierra. Desde una perspectiva bourdiana se considera que quienes intervinieron en la negociación están constituidos por habitus, de los que las representaciones de género son expresiones. Éstas, además de estar estrechamente conectadas con la ubicación socioeconómica y cultural de los sujetos, se configuran como uno de los recursos mediante los cuales los agentes dotan de significado a la realidad social. Y son, también, guía de la percepción y de las acciones que se realizan en un campo específico: el de la política de tierras. En el marco del estudio, dicho campo corresponde a la red de instituciones con prácticas y discursos específicos cuyo objetivo, en momentos coyunturales, ha sido el de regular el acceso a la tierra y los conflictos aparejados a éste. (Abstract from original source)
 
This article analyses the role and operation of gender representations regarding, on the one hand, the definition and allocation of women’s interests in relation to access to land processes and, on the other, their actual achievements in this respect. For this purpose, it examines the gender representations displayed by peasants’ organizations, women peasants’ organizations and civil servants during the negotiation processes for including a gender perspective into the Colombian land policy. In this regard, special attention is given to Law 30 of 1988 and Law 160 of 1994. More specifically, the article argues that the symbolic constructions of the role of peasant women and men have significantly determined the kind of formal and de facto recognition of land ownership rights. From a Bourdieun perspective, it is maintained that those participating in the land policy negotiation where constituted by habitus, of which gender representations are expressions. Besides being closely connected to the socioeconomic and cultural location of the subjects, such representations function as one of the resources whereby agents provide meaning to social reality. In this sense, the article reads the land policy in Colombia as a Bourdieun field where gender representations guided both the perception and the actions taking place there. Such field is organized into a grid of institutional practices and discourses seeking to circumstantially regulate land and land conflicts. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana

Citation:

Martínez Montenegro, Isnel, and Mónica Baeza Leiva. “Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana.” Revista Prolegómenos Derechos y Valores 20, no. 39 (2017): 29–38.

 

Author: Isnel Martínez Montenegro, Mónica Baeza Leiva

Abstract:

El presente artículo indaga sobre los enfoques de género en el papel que desempeña la mujer en la industria agraria, y sobre el tratamiento que se le da a este tema en la legislación vigente sobre la herencia de la tierra en Cuba. Se analizan aquí los avances y retos con respecto a las mujeres en la agricultura cubana y se expone la norma cubana y sus aspectos contradictorios, haciendo una comparación con la situación actual en Latinoamérica. La mujer ha logrado desarrollar tareas imprescindibles en la industria agraria cubana, sin embargo, no en todos los casos estos avances se corresponden con las medidas adoptadas ni están dirigidos a la consecución de la igualdad como objetivo fundamental. (Abstract from original source)
 
This article investigates the gender perspective in the role performed by women in the agricultural industry, and the treatment given to this topic in the current legislation on the inheritance of land in Cuba. Progress and challenges regarding women in Cuban agriculture are analyzed here, and it is exposed the Cuban standard and its contradictory aspects, making a comparison with the current situation in Latin America. The woman has managed to develop essential tasks in the Cuban agricultural industry; however, not in all cases these advances correspond to the measures adopted or are aimed at the achievement of equality as a fundamental objective. (English provided by original source)
 
A presente artigo indaga sobre os enfoques de gênero no papel que desempenha a mulher na indústria agrária e sobre o tratamento que é dado a este tema na legislação vigente sobre a herança da terra em Cuba. Aqui foram analisados os avanços e desafios com respeito às mulheres na agricultura cubana e foi exposta a norma cubana e seus aspectos contraditórios, fazendo uma comparação com a situação atual na América Latina. A mulher conseguiu desenvolver tarefas imprescindíveis na indústria agrária cubana, porém, nem em todos os casos estes avanços correspondem a medidas adotadas nem estão dirigidos à consecução da igualdade como objetivo fundamental. (Portuguese provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Cuba

Year: 2017

Entre el despojo y la restitución: reflexiones sobre género, justicia y retorno en la costa caribe colombiana

Citation:

Meertens, Donny. “Entre el despojo y la restitución: reflexiones sobre género, justicia y retorno en la costa caribe colombiana.” Revista Colombiana de Antropología 52, no. 2 (2016): 45–71.

 

Author: Donny Meertens

Abstract:

Este artículo explora, a través de un lente de género centrado en la relación mujer-tierra, los múltiples discursos de justicia que entran en juego en los contextos de despojo y restitución de tierras en Colombia. El despojo de tierras es más que un asunto material, pues tiene otras dimensiones (sociales y simbólicas), todas marcadas por el género, las cuales se presentan nuevamente en la restitución. Las investigaciones realizadas en el Caribe colombiano sugieren que el modelo legal de restitución, centrado en lo material, tiene efectos limitados de justicia ante las experiencias subjetivas de las mujeres que retornan al campo como propietarias de tierra. Lo anterior se debe a la difícil reconstrucción de las dimensiones sociales y simbólicas de la restitución en los territorios posviolencia, en términos de restauración de la dignidad, el sentido de pertenencia y la legitimidad social. (Abstract from original source)
 
This article explores, through a gender lens focused on women and land, the multiple discourses on justice at stake in the contexts of both violent land dispossession and land restitution in Colombia. Land dispossession is more than a material affair and its multiple dimensions (social, symbolic), all with a gender mark, are also present in the restitution process. Research carried out in Colombia’s Caribbean region suggests that the legal model of land restitution, focused on the material aspects, has only limited success in terms of justice as it does not sufficiently address the subjective experiences of the women who return to the countryside as formal landowners. This is due to the difficult reconstruction of the social and symbolic dimensions of restitution in “postviolent” territories, in terms of the restoration of dignity, sense of belonging, and social entitlement. (English translation provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Interrogating Large Scale Land Acquisition and Its Implication on Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Ghana

Citation:

Darkwah, Akosua K., Peace A. Medie, and Maame Gyekye-Jandoh. 2017. “Interrogating Large Scale Land Acquisition and Its Implication on Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Ghana.” Working Paper No. 401/August 2017. The Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Boston, MA.

Authors: Akosua K. Darkwah, Peace A. Medie, Maame Gyekye-Jandoh

Abstract:

Large scale land acquisitions have become increasingly common across Africa. This paper draws on two case studies of large scale land acquisitions in Ghana to examine how the practice affects communities in general, and women in particular. It explains that while there have been some benefits of these acquisitions, the costs to communities mostly outweigh the benefits. Women are particularly impacted by this practice as their livelihoods are affected and they are excluded from the proceeds of land transactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the actions that state agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and communities have taken to address the negative impact of large scale land acquisition on women and their communities. (Abstract from original source).

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

These Days We Have to Be Poor People: Women’s Narratives of the Economic Aftermath of Forced Evictions in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Citation:

McGinn, Colleen. 2015. “These Days We Have to Be Poor People: Women’s Narratives of the Economic Aftermath of Forced Evictions in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.” Paper presented at Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian-Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and South-East Asia Conference. Chiang Mai University, June. 

Author: Colleen McGinn

Abstract:

“This paper explores the economic aftermath of forced evictions for urban Cambodian women. It is based on an analysis of in-depth narratives of 22 women displaced from five locations in Phnom Penh, the capital city. Evictees’ overall post-eviction coping and adaptation proved to be grounded in their economic circumstances, which in turn framed other risk and resilience factors. The nature and degree of economic harm resulting from the evictions varied widely, and followed specific patterns consistent with pre-displacement socioeconomic status, livelihood source, and the degree to which social networks were embedded in their former neighborhoods. Those who worked in the informal sector experienced shocks to their livelihoods, especially those who landed in remote locations. Homeowners were more typically harmed in terms of assets: they might maintain relatively stable incomes, but lose enormous value of their properties. A third group experienced a catastrophic double blow affecting both livelihoods and assets; this group tended to include shopkeepers whose shelter and livelihoods were both tied to their property. There were also some women who reported that forced eviction had had a relatively benign impact on them. These narratives were idiosyncratic. However, several explanatory factors emerged, including these women had intact livelihoods, superficial ties to their former neighborhoods, and/or found new housing nearby. I conclude with recommendations, including compensation at full market value for seized properties, and broad urban planning measures to protect and encourage affordable rental housing within the city, proximate to diverse livelihood opportunities. A housing/shelter focus to advocacy, policy, and assistance strategies is too narrow, because it poorly addresses the livelihood crisis experienced by many of the displaced.” (Abstract from original source

Keywords: gender, land grab, eviction, Cambodia, Southeast Asia, state-gender relations

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2017

Land Registration and Certification as a Key Strategy for Ensuring Gender Equity, Preventing Land Grabbing and Enhancing Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia

Citation:

Gebre-Egziabher, Abraha Kinfe. 2013. “Land Registration and Certification as a Key Strategy for Ensuring Gender Equity, Preventing Land Grabbing and Enhancing Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia.” International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity 8 (2): 5-22.

Author: Abraham Kinfe Gebre-Egziabher

Abstract:

“In Ethiopia the land issue has always occupied a central place in various struggles for survival and development. Tigray, Ethiopia had a complex land tenure system which has a long history, which goes back to the Aksumite period. The land tenure of Tigray was modified after the introduction of Christianity to Tigray, Ethiopia in about 320 AD, and subsequent leaders began founding churches and establishing monasteries. Traditionally, every Tigreayan was entitled to a piece of land by virtue of the fact that he/she belongs by birth to a given community (Rsti). However, “The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Article over the years this seemingly simple system has been complicated by the monarchs of Tigray. Two of the main problems that were associated with the land issues of Tigray during that time mainly during the imperial regime were land grabbing and the gender disparity in land ownership. As a result of the two and other key problems, the Tigreayans grew progressively poorer over the years.
 
40 (The Right to Property) and Article 35 (Rights of Women), respectively, were aimed at addressing the major problems related to land and gender issues. As a way of implementing the articles given in the Constitution and the policies, the regional government of Tigray used Land Registration and Certification as a strategy. The land registration and certification process conducted in Tigray is a process that is local, simple, done in the language of the people (Tigrigna), transparent and participatory, and has prevented land grabbing and ensured gender equity. This article then discusses how land registration and certification not only prevents land grabbing and ensures gender equity, but also enhances agricultural productivity, by using the evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia.” (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: Agricultural productivity, financial capital, human capital, natural capital, social capital, gender equity capital, Land Certification, grabbing, registration, sustainable development, Tigray, ethiopia

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2013

Building Inclusive Cities

Citation:

Whitzman, Carolyn, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath eds. 2013. Building Inclusive Cities. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Carolyn Whitzman, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath

Annotation:

Summary:
“Building on a growing movement within developing countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia–Pacific, as well as Europe and North America, this book documents cutting-edge practice and builds theory around a rights-based approach to women’s safety in the context of poverty reduction and social inclusion. Drawing upon two decades of research and grass-roots action on safer cities for women and everyone, this book is about the right to an inclusive city. The first part of the book describes the challenges that women face regarding access to essential services, housing security, liveability and mobility. The second part of the book critically examines programmes, projects and ideas that are working to make cities safer. Building Inclusive Cities takes a cross-cultural learning perspective from action research occurring throughout the world and translates this research into theoretical conceptualizations to inform the literature on planning and urban management in both developing and developed countries. This book is intended to inspire both thought and action” (Whitzman 2013, i).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2013

Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Pandey, Shanta. 1998. “Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development.” International Social Work 41 (3): 339-55. 

Author: Shanta Pandey

Annotation:

Summary:
“In developing countries, poor populations, especially women and children, are disproportionately concentrated in ecologically degraded, fragile, and marginal lands (Durning, 1989). A wide range of development programs have been launched to promote social and economic development of rural areas. These programs are in the form of reforestation, irrigation and drinking water improvement, innovative farming techniques, primary health care facilities and health education, and training and human capital development. People’s participation, especially women’s, in these development programs is crucial for their success. Much has been written on the failure of states and development projects to engage rural people, especially rural women, in these rural development initiatives (Mayoux, 1995). This paper reviews several case studies conducted in Nepal and identifies some of the factors that contribute to the participation of rural people, especially rural women, in forest resources management programs. The paper also discusses social workers’ role in promoting participation and sustainable development” (Pandey, 1998, 339).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 1998

Pages

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