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Gender

Sex and World Peace

Citation:

Hudson, Valerie, Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie, Caprioli, Mary, and Emmett, Chad F. 2012. Sex and World Peace. New York City: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Valerie Hudson, Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, Chad F. Emmett

Annotation:

Summary:

Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all. (Summary from WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction

Year: 2012

Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone

Citation:

White, Aimee. 2008. "Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone." M.A., Canada: Dalhousie University (Canada).

Author: Aimee White

Annotation:

Summary:
Post-conflict countries will not achieve sustainable peace without the inclusion and participation of women in peacebuilding processes. In Sierra Leone, women were heavily involved in bringing about an end to the 1991--2002 conflict, but yet were largely excluded from political and decision-making processes in post-conflict context. The physical and structural gender-based violence women experienced throughout the conflict and the ways in which women took the lead in addressing these issues in the post-conflict context demonstrates women's essential but formally unrecognized role in peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. The post-genocide context in Rwanda provides a comparison for the ways in which women have seized the socio-political space opened up by conflict to challenge gender inequality and take an active role in the political structures of the country. There are a number of international policy frameworks to complement this process in post-conflict countries but international and national rhetoric must translate into concrete action. (Summary from original)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Rwanda, Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

The Participation of Women in Peace Processes. The Other Tables

Citation:

Villellas Ariño, María. 2010. "The Participation of Women in Peace Processes. The Other Tables." Barcelona: Institut Catalá Internacional per la Pau.

Author: María Villellas Ariño

Abstract:

This paper argues that women’s absence in peace processes cannot be explained by their alleged lack of experience in dialogue and negotiation, but by a serious lack of will to include them in such important initiatives of change. Women have wide ranging experience in dialogue processes including many war and post-war contexts, but there has been a deliberate lack of effort to integrate them in formal peace processes. After introducing the research framework, the paper addresses women’s involvement in peace, and analyzes the role played by women in peace processes, through the cases of Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland. The paper concludes that peace processes are as gendered as wars, and for that reason gender has to be a guiding line for including women in peace processes. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, South Asia, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Sri Lanka, United Kingdom

Year: 2010

Feminist Visions of Development: Gender Analysis and Policy

Citation:

Pearson, Ruth, and Cecile Jackson, eds. 1998. Feminist Visions of Development: Gender Analysis and Policy. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge.

Authors: Ruth Pearson, Cecile Jackson

Annotation:

Summary:
Key issues in gender studies and development todat are explored in detail, from rural and urban poverty to population and family planning, resulting from the 1995 UN Conference on Women (Summary from WorldCat). 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Interrogating development: feminism, gender and policy
Ruth Pearson and Cecile Jackson
 
2. Who needs [sex] when you can have [gender]? conflicting discourses on gender at Beijing
Sally Baden and Anne Marie Goetz
 
3. Rescuing gender from the poverty trap
Cecile Jackson
 
4. Analysing women's movements
Maxine Molyneux
 
5. Jumping to conclusions?: struggles over meaning and method in the study of household economics
Naila Kabeer
 
6. Famine and transformation in gender relations
Jocelyn Kynch
 
7. Gender, power and contestation: 'rethinking bargaining with patriarchy'
Deniz Kandiyoti
 
8. Talking to the boys: gender and economic growth models
Diane Elson
 
9. 'Nimble fingers' revisited: reflections on women and Third World industrialization in the late twentieth century
Ruth Pearson
 
10. Female and male grain marketing systems: analytical and policy issues for West Africa and India
Barbara Harriss-White
 
11. Gender analysis of family planning: beyond the 'feminist vs. population control' debate
Ines Smyth
 
12. Silver bullet or passing fancy?: girls' schooling and population policy
Patricia Jeffery and Roger Jeffery
 
13. Questionable links: approaches to gender in environmental research and policy
Cathy Green, Susan Joekes and Melissa Leach
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, East Asia, South Asia Countries: China, India

Year: 1998

Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank

Citation:

Bedford, Kate. 2009. Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Author: Kate Bedford

Annotation:

Summary:
A critique of how the World Bank encourages gender norms, Developing Partnerships argues that financial institutions are key players in the global enforcement of gender and family expectations. By combining analysis of documents produced and sponsored by the World Bank with interviews of World Bank staffers and case studies, Kate Bedford presents a detailed examination of gender and sexuality in the policies of the world's most influential development institution (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Working women, caring men, and the family bank : ideal gender relations after the Washington consensus 
 
2. The model region remodels partnerships : the politics of gender research in Latin America and the Caribbean
 
3. Forging partnerships, sidelining child care : how Ecuadorian femocrats navigate institutional constraints in World Bank gender policy
 
4. Roses mean love : export promotion and the restructuring of intimacy in Ecuador
 
5. Cultures of saving and loving : ethnodevelopment, gender, and heteronormativity in Prodepine
 
6. Holding it together : family strengthening in Argentina.
 
 

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, International Financial Institutions, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Ecuador

Year: 2009

Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality

Citation:

Ringrose, Jessica. 2007. “Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality.” Gender & Education 19 (4): 471–89.

Author: Jessica Ringrose

Abstract:

This paper examines how an ongoing educational panic over failing boys has contributed to a new celebratory discourse about successful girls. Rather than conceive of this shift as an anti-feminist feminist backlash, the paper examines how the successful girl discourse is postfeminist, and how liberal feminist theory has contributed to narrowly conceived, divisive educational debates and policies where boys' disadvantage/success are pitted against girls' disadvantage/success. The paper illustrates that gender-only and gender binary conceptions of educational achievement are easily recuperated into individualizing neo-liberal discourses of educational equality, and consistently conceal how issues of achievement in school are related to issues of class, race, ethnicity, religion, citizenship and location. Some recent media examples that illustrate the intensification of the successful girl discourse are examined. It is argued that the gender and achievement debate fuels a seductive postfeminist discourse of girl power, possibility and choice with massive reach, where girls' educational performance is used as evidence that individual success is attainable and educational policies are working in contexts of globalization, marketization and economic insecurity. The new contradictory work of 'doing' successful femininity, which requires balancing traditional feminine and masculine qualities, is also considered. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Education, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Privatization

Year: 2007

Masculinities and Globalization

Citation:

Connell, R. W. 1998. “Masculinities and Globalization.” Men and Masculinities 1 (1): 3–23.

Author: R.W. Connell

Abstract:

Recent social science research has made important changes in our understanding of masculinities and men's gender practices, emphasizing the plurality and hierarchy of masculinities, and their collective and dynamic character. These gains have been achieved mainly by close-focus research methods. But in a globalizing world, we must pay attention also to very large scale structures. An understanding of the world gender order is a necessary basis for thinking about men and masculinities globally. We can trace the emergence of globalizing masculinities at different stages of the history of the world gender order. Hegemony in the contemporary gender order is connected with patterns of trade, investment, and communication dominated by the North. A transnational business masculinity, institutionally based in multinational corporations and global finance markets, is arguably the emerging dominant form on a world scale. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations

Year: 1998

From Structural Adjustment to Social Adjustment: A Gendered Analysis of Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes in Mexico and Nicaragua

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah. 2008. “From Structural Adjustment to Social Adjustment: A Gendered Analysis of Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes in Mexico and Nicaragua.” Global Social Policy 8 (2): 188–207. 

Author: Sarah Bradshaw

Abstract:

The article explores the implications for gender roles and relations in Nicaragua of implementing a Conditional Cash Transfer programme aimed at improving the situation of the extreme poor. Nicaragua's programme, the Social Protection Network/Red de Protección Social (RPS), is modelled on the Progresa/Oportunidades programme of Mexico and shares many features in common. Evaluations of Progresa have suggested positive outcomes for women. However, examination of the findings highlight some cause for concern particularly around what inclusion on the programme means for the women involved. The article explores the consequences of translating this programme aimed at addressing the structural causes of poverty into a more overtly neoliberal and neo-conservative policy context such as that in Nicaragua. It highlights how a key feature of the RPS is the `social adjustment' of women's behaviour for economic growth gains and discusses the possible consequences for the women included and excluded from the programme. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Roles, International Financial Institutions Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 2008

Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas

Citation:

Witvorapong, Nopphol, Raya Muttarak, and Wiraporn Pothisiri. 2015. “Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas.” PLoS ONE 10 (7): 1–20.

Authors: Nopphol Witvorapong, Raya Muttarak, Wiraporn Pothisiri

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation.

Topics: Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2015

Segregation, Exclusion and LGBT People in Disaster Impacted Areas: Experiences from the Higashinihon Dai - Shinsai (Great East-Japan Disaster)

Citation:

Yamashita, Azusa, Christopher Gomez, and Kelly Dombroski. 2017. “Segregation, Exclusion and LGBT People in Disaster Impacted Areas: Experiences from the Higashinihon Dai - Shinsai (Great East-Japan Disaster).” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 24 (1): 64–71.

Authors: Azusa Yamashita, Christopher Gomez, Kelly Dombroski

Abstract:

English Abstract:
The Great East-Japan Disaster, which began with the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, prompted discussions throughout the Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community on the vulnerabilities that LGBT people face during disaster because of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. This short essay shares some of the post-disaster experiences, challenges and discussions of the LGBT community in Japan. Reports coming out of the LGBT community have stressed that pre-disaster discrimination and fears of discrimination and repression among LGBT people have hampered their recovery. There is a real fear of being discriminated against and having their family and friends discriminated against. This situation has led to the isolation and vulnerability of LGBT individuals. Despite the majority being reluctant to come out publically, the disaster forced numerous individuals to reveal their gender identity, particularly when confronted with life in shelters, the lack of supply of medication and so on. In turn, this has resulted in instances of discrimination and bullying. These accounts reveal that the main aims of disaster policies and disaster ethics – based on addressing the greatest good of the majority – largely fail to cater for LGBT people, who are not only victims of the disaster but can also be valuable contributors in the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) process.

Spanish Abstract:
El Gran Desastre del Este de Japón, que comenzó con el terremoto y tsunami de marzo de 2011, desató discusiones en toda la comunidad lesbiana, gay, bisexual y transgénero (LGBT) sobre las vulnerabilidades que las personas LGBT enfrentan durante un desastre debido a su orientación sexual, identidad de género y expresión de género. Este breve ensayo comparte algunas de las experiencias, desafíos y discusiones post-desastre de la comunidad LGBT en Japón. Informes que surgen de la comunidad LGBT han enfatizado que la discriminación pre-desastre y los miedos a ésta y de la represión entre las personas LGBT han obstaculizado su recuperación. Hay un miedo real a ser discriminadxs, ellxs o sus familias y amigxs. Esta situación ha llevado a individuos LGBT al aislamiento y la vulnerabilidad. A pesar de que la mayoría son reacios a salir públicamente, el desastre forzó a numerosos individuos a revelar su identidad de género, particularmente cuando enfrentan la vida en los refugios, la falta de medicamentos y así sucesivamente. A su vez, esto resultó en instancias de discriminación y bullying. Estos relatos revelan que los objetivos principales de las políticas y éticas de desastre – basados en abordar el mayor beneficio de la mayoría – no tienen en cuenta a las personas LGBT, quienes no sólo son víctimas del desastre sino que pueden también ser valiosas contribuyentes en el proceso de Reducción del Riesgo de Desastre (RRD).

Chinese Abstract:
2011年三月,随着地震与海啸而来的东日本大灾难,刺激了全日本的男女同性恋、双性恋与跨性别(LGBT)社群对于LGBT人们因为性向、性别身份认同与性别表现,在灾难中所经历的脆弱性之探讨。此一简要文章,分享日本有关LGBT社群的若干灾后经验,挑战与探讨。来自LGBT社群的研究报告,强调灾害前对LGBT人们的歧视,以及LGBT人们对歧视与压迫的恐惧,伤害了他们的復原。对于自身受到歧视,及其亲友遭受歧视,存在着真实的恐惧。此一境况导致LGBT个人的孤立和脆弱性。尽管大多数人不情愿公开出柜,但灾难却迫使无数的个人揭露自身的性别身份认同,特别是当经历生活在避难所以及缺乏医药供给等,而此般境况回头导致了歧视和霸凌事件。这些说法揭露了灾难政策和灾难伦理的主要目标 – – 以应对大多数人的最大利益为根据 – – 多半无法照料LGBT人们,而他们不仅是灾难的受害者,亦可能同时是灾难风险降低(DRR)过程中宝贵的贡献者

Keywords: vulnerability, Inequalities, disaster management, LGBT, Great East Japan Disaster, social exclusion

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, LGBTQ, Security Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2017

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