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Environment

The Return of Nature: Feminism, Hegemonic Masculinities, and New Materialisms

Citation:

Garlick, Steve. 2019. “The Return of Nature: Feminism, Hegemonic Masculinities, and New Materialisms.” Men and Masculinities 22 (2): 380–403. 

Author: Steve Garlick

Abstract:

It has generally been taken for granted within the field of Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities (CSMM) that the object of attention and concern is to be found within “the social” and in opposition to naturalizing claims about gender. Nature is not entirely absent from CSMM, often appearing either as malleable material or as a stable basis for the social construction of bodies. In this article, however, I suggest that the time is ripe to develop new concepts of nature by drawing on new materialist theories that are increasingly influential within feminist theory. This move opens up the possibility of strengthening the connections between materialist traditions in CSMM and contemporary developments in feminist theory. This article proceeds by reviewing different forms of materialism within feminist theory and argues that new materialist theories offer insights that can benefit CSMM. In particular, I argue that the theory of hegemonic masculinity needs to be expanded beyond the framework of patriarchy and recast in relation to the place of nature in the complex ecology of human social relations. 

Keywords: nature, ecofeminism, new materialism, complexity theory, hegemonic masculinity

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2019

A Whole New World: Remaking Masculinity in the Context of the Environmental Movement

Citation:

Connell, Robert W. 1990. “A Whole New World: Remaking Masculinity in the Context of the Environmental Movement.” Gender and Society 4 (4): 452-78.

Author: Robert W. Connell

Abstract:

The impact of feminism on men has produced both backlash and attempts to reconstruct masculinity. The Australian environmental movement, strongly influenced by countercultural ideas, is a case in which feminist pressure has produced significant attempts at change among men. These are explored through life-history interviews founded on a practice-based theory of gender. Six life histories are traced through three dialectical moments: engagement with hegemonic masculinity; separation focused on an individualized remaking of the self, involving an attempt to undo oedipal masculinization; and a shift toward collective politics. This last and most important step remains tentative.

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 1990

Rural Male Suicide in Australia

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2012. “Rural Male Suicide in Australia.” Social Science & Medicine 74 (4): 515-22.

Author: Margaret Alston

Abstract:

The rate of suicide amongst Australia’s rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men.

Keywords: Australia, suicide, men, rural, gender relations, masculinity, climate, farming

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Mental Health Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2012

Insurgent Vulnerability and the Carbon Footprint of Gender

Citation:

Alaimo, Stacy. 2009. “Insurgent Vulnerability and the Carbon Footprint of Gender.” Kvinder Køn & Forskning 3–4: 22–35.

Author: Stacy Alaimo

Annotation:

Summary: 
Gendered stances, styles, practices, and modes of thought permeate the representations of the science of climate change, the activist response to climate change, and modes of consumerism responsible for releasing massive quantities of carbon into the atmosphere. This article critiques the masculinity of aggressive consumption that has increased the carbon footprint of the U.S. and the free-floating, transcendent perspective presented by the official U.S. accounts of climate change. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2009

Gender, Nutrition- and Climate-Smart Food Production: Opportunities and Trade-Offs

Citation:

Beuchelt, Tina Désirée, and Lone Badstue. 2013. “Gender, Nutrition- and Climate-Smart Food Production: Opportunities and Trade-Offs.” Food Security 5 (5): 709-21.

Authors: Tina Désirée Beuchelt , Lone Badstue

Abstract:

Future food and nutrition security is threatened by climate change, overexploitation of natural resources and pervasive social inequalities. Promising solutions are often technology-focused and not necessarily developed considering gender and social disparities. This paper addresses issues of gender and human development opportunities and trade- offs related to promoting improved technologies for agricultural development. We examined these aspects for conservation agriculture (CA) as part of a cropping system with nutrition- and climate-smart potential. The paper is based on a literature review and field experiences from Zambia and Mexico. Findings point up situations where the promotion of CA for smallholders in developing countries may have undesired effects from gender and human development perspectives, specifically relating to drudgery, nutrition and food security, residue use, assets, mechanization and extension. The direction and magnitude of potential trade-offs depend on the local context and the specific intervention. The analysis is followed by a discussion of opportunities and pathways for mitigating the trade-offs, including gender transformative approaches; engagement with alternative or non-traditional partners with different but complementary perspectives and strengths; “smart” combinations of technologies and approaches; and policies for inclusive development.

Keywords: Trade-offs, gender and social equity, agriculture, conservation agriculture, Technology diffusion

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Security, Food Security

Year: 2013

Feminist Political Ecology Practices of Worlding: Art, Commoning and the Politics of Hope in the Classroom

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy. 2019. “Feminist Political Ecology Practices of Worlding: Art, Commoning and the Politics of Hope in the Classroom.” International Journal of the Commons 13 (1): 153–74.

Author: Wendy Harcourt

Abstract:

In the paper I argue that in a world where our lives are intricately interconnected and our environments are rapidly changing, commoning produces ecological imaginaries and understandings of places that could build a sense of global commons based on mutuality, reciprocity, and relationality. In exploring commoning in the international classroom, my paper contributes to ongoing dialogues on community economies and feminist political ecology in the Community Economies Research Network (CERN), and the newly formed EU project Well-being, Ecology, Gender and cOmmunity (WEGO). In the article I first set out how I use commoning in my teaching. In section two I present my methodology, followed by section three where I present the community economies research network. In section four I present a case study of how I employ the community economies iceberg diagram in my teaching process using drawing/ art-making to create an emergent commons-in-practice. In section five I discuss the productivity of bringing community economies and commoning to a broader feminist, ecological justice project followed by a conclusion.

Keywords: commoning, community economies, feminist political ecology, gender, postdevelopment

Topics: Economies, Education, Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Justice

Year: 2019

Plan F: Feminist Plan for a Caring and Sustainable Economy

Citation:

Elson, Diane. 2016. “Plan F: Feminist Plan for a Caring and Sustainable Economy.” Globalizations 13 (6): 919–21.

Author: Diane Elson

Annotation:

Summary:
"Both UK WBG and SWBG have been very critical of the impact of austerity policies on gender equality and well-being of low income women. Plan F is an attempt to develop a Feminist Alternative for social and economic recovery that goes beyond a focus on economic growth and job creation with a vision of creating a caring and sustainable economy. This would be funded by measures such as cancelling plans for a new Trident submarine, ending tax giveaways that benefit better-off men much more than low-income women, and cracking down on aggressive tax avoidance and evasion. A caring and sustainable economy is based on mutual support and respect for rights. It is oriented to the broad and inclusive aim of improving our well-being in ways that reduce inequalities, not only today, but also for future generations. It prioritises care for people and for the planet" (Elson 2016, 919). 

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Poverty, Environment, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2015

Feminist Political Ecology

Citation:

Elmhirst, Rebecca. 2015. “Feminist Political Ecology.” In The Routledge Handbook of Political Ecology, edited by Tom Perreault, Gavin Bridge, and James McCarthy, 519–30. Abingdon: Routledge.

Author: Rebecca Elmhirst

Abstract:

Feminist political ecology emerged as a subfield of Political Ecology in the 1990s, developing initially from gender and development studies, with which it shares a broad commitment to understanding the dynamics of gender in relation to the natural environment and in the context of natural resource-based livelihoods. As with Political Ecology more generally, Feminist Political Ecology (FPE hereafter) emphasizes politics and power at different scales, but goes further in highlighting gendered power relations, and in making an explicit commitment towards tackling gender disadvantage and inequality. FPE directs attention towards gendered processes within the politics of environmental degradation and conservation, the neoliberalization of nature and ongoing rounds of accumulation, enclosure and dispossession associated with each of these. Work within this field seeks to complicate arenas of assumed common interest, such as “community” and “household”, and to explore the connections between nature, gendered subject formation and the body. Of central interest are the gender dimensions of struggles over nature and the environment, and how might these intersect and be informed by feminist objectives, strategies and practices. Whilst FPE embraces a diversity of approaches and subject matters, there is a shared (if often implicit) commitment to feminist epistemology, methods and values, where dominant, masculinist conceptions and practices of knowledge and authority are recognized and challenged, and where emphasis is given to research and practice that empowers and promotes social and ecological transformation for women and other marginalized groups. (Routledge) 

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gendered Power Relations, Households

Year: 2015

Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies

Citation:

Elmhirst, Rebecca. 2011. “Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies.” Geoforum 42 (2): 129–32. 

Author: Rebecca Elmhirst

Abstract:

Political Ecology is firmly established as an important area of enquiry within Geography that attends to many of the most important questions of our age, including the politics of environmental degradation and conservation, the neoliberalisation of nature and ongoing rounds of accumulation, enclosure and dispossession, focusing on access and control of resources, and environmental struggles around knowledge and power, justice and governance. This short introductory paper considers how feminists working in this field of enquiry consider the gender dimension to such issues, and how political ecologies might intersect with a feminist objectives, strategies and practices: a focus for early iterations of a promising sub-field, labelled Feminist Political Ecology. It considers a number of epistemological, political and practical challenges that together may account for the relatively limited number of works that self-identify as feminist political ecology. Whilst this has made it difficult for Feminist Political Ecology to gain purchase as a sub- field within the political ecology cannon, this introductory piece highlights fruitful new ways that developments in feminist thinking enrich work in this field, evident in a flowering of recent publications.

Keywords: feminist political ecology, political ecology, gender, Subjectivity, scale, embodiment

Topics: Environment, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Governance, Justice

Year: 2011

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