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Education

Explaining Recidivism of Ex-Combatants in Colombia

Citation:

Kaplan, Oliver, and Enzo Nussio. 2018. “Explaining Recidivism of Ex-Combatants in Colombia.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 62 (1): 64–93.

Authors: Oliver Kaplan, Enzo Nussio

Abstract:

What determines the recidivism of ex-combatants from armed conflicts? In post-conflict settings around the world, there has been growing interest in reintegration programs to prevent ex-combatants from returning to illegal activities or to armed groups, yet little is known about who decides to ‘‘go bad.’’ We evaluate explanations for recidivism related to combatant experiences and common criminal motives by combining data from a representative survey of ex-combatants of various armed groups in Colombia with police records of observed behaviors that indicate which among the respondents returned to belligerent or illegal activities. Consistent with a theory of recidivism being shaped by driving and restraining factors, the results suggest that factors such as antisocial personality traits, weak family ties, lack of educational attainment, and the presence of criminal groups are most highly correlated with various kinds of recidivism and hold implications for programs and policies to successfully reintegrate ex-combatants into society.

Keywords: recidivism, reintegration, DDR, Colombia, civil war, ex-combatants

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Combatants, DDR, Education, Gender, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2018

Do Natural Disasters Decrease the Gender Gap in Schooling?

Citation:

Takasaki, Yoshito. 2017. “Do Natural Disasters Decrease the Gender Gap in Schooling?” World Development 94 (1): 75–89.

Author: Yoshito Takasaki

Keywords: gender gap in schooling, child labor, natural disaster, disaster aid, Pacific, Fiji

Annotation:

Summary: 
Rapidly decreasing gender gaps in schooling in some developing countries can be partly explained by a gendered division of child farm labor as a coping response to natural disasters. This paper makes a case for this conjecture by analyzing original household survey data from rural Fiji. Boys, not girls, contribute to farming only among cyclone victims with dwelling damage, independent of housing-aid receipt. Boys’ school enrollment is significantly lower than girls’ only among victims who did not receive aid early enough. Boys with no elder brother and an educated father are particularly vulnerable in their progression to higher level schools.

Topics: Education, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Households Regions: Oceania Countries: Fiji

Year: 2017

Woman's Role in Economic Development

Citation:

Boserup, Ester, Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan, and Camilla Toulmin. 2007. Woman's Role in Economic Development. London: Earthscan.

Authors: Ester Boserup, Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan, Camilla Toulmin

Annotation:

Summary:
This classic text by Ester Boserup was the first investigation ever undertaken into what happens to women in the process of economic and social growth throughout the developing world, thereby serving as an international benchmark. In the context of the ongoing struggle for women's rights, massive urbanization and international efforts to reduce poverty, this book continues to be a vital text for economists, sociologists, development workers, activists and all those who take an active interest in women's social and economic circumstances and problems throughout the world. A substantial new Introduction by Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan and Camilla Toulmin reflects on Boserup's legacy as a scholar and activist, and the continuing relevance of her work. This highlights the key issue of how the role of women in economic development has or has not changed over the past four decades in developing countries, and covers crucial current topics including: women and inequality, international and national migration, conflict, HIV and AIDS, markets and employment, urbanization, leadership, property rights, global processes, including the Millennium Development Goals, and barriers to change. (Summary from Taylor and Francis Group)
 

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: In the Village

1. Male and Female Farming Systems

2. The Economics of Polygamy

3. Loss of Status Under European Rule

4. The Casual Worker

Part II: In the Town

5. Women in a Men's World

6. Industry: From the Hut to the Factory

7. The Educated Woman

8. Women in the Urban Hierarchy

Part III: From Village to Town

9. The Lure of the Towns

10. Urban Job Opportunities for Women

11. The Unemployment Scare

12. The Design of Female Education

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Education, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2007

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights

Citation:

Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi

Annotation:

Summary:
Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
 
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
 
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
 
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
 
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
 
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
 
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
 
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
 
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
 
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
 
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
 
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality

Citation:

Ringrose, Jessica. 2007. “Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality.” Gender & Education 19 (4): 471–89.

Author: Jessica Ringrose

Abstract:

This paper examines how an ongoing educational panic over failing boys has contributed to a new celebratory discourse about successful girls. Rather than conceive of this shift as an anti-feminist feminist backlash, the paper examines how the successful girl discourse is postfeminist, and how liberal feminist theory has contributed to narrowly conceived, divisive educational debates and policies where boys' disadvantage/success are pitted against girls' disadvantage/success. The paper illustrates that gender-only and gender binary conceptions of educational achievement are easily recuperated into individualizing neo-liberal discourses of educational equality, and consistently conceal how issues of achievement in school are related to issues of class, race, ethnicity, religion, citizenship and location. Some recent media examples that illustrate the intensification of the successful girl discourse are examined. It is argued that the gender and achievement debate fuels a seductive postfeminist discourse of girl power, possibility and choice with massive reach, where girls' educational performance is used as evidence that individual success is attainable and educational policies are working in contexts of globalization, marketization and economic insecurity. The new contradictory work of 'doing' successful femininity, which requires balancing traditional feminine and masculine qualities, is also considered. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Education, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Privatization

Year: 2007

Women Beneficiaries or Women Bearing the Cost? A Gendered Analysis of the Red de Protección Social in Nicaragua

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah, and Ana Quirós Víquez. 2008. “Women Beneficiaries or Women Bearing the Cost? A Gendered Analysis of the Red de Protección Social in Nicaragua.” Development and Change 39 (5): 823–44. 
 

Authors: Sarah Bradshaw, Ana Quirós Víquez

Abstract:

Conditional Cash Transfer programmes aim to alleviate short-term poverty through cash transfers to poor households, and to reduce longer-term poverty through making these transfers conditional on household investment in the health and education of children. These programmes have become increasingly popular with institutions such as the World Bank. However, the need for conditionalities has been questioned on a number of levels, including its necessity: it has been suggested that the cash transfer in itself may be sufficient to secure most of the programme's wider aims. The example of Nicaragua supports this contention, demonstrating that only a small incentive is needed to bring the desired changes in the uptake of education, since this is something prized by the poor themselves. In health, the Nicaraguan case suggests that demand-side initiatives might not be as important as supply-side changes that improve the affordability and accessibility of services. The Nicaragua case also highlights the long-term limitations of applying such programmes in countries with high levels of poverty and low economic growth. A gendered analysis of the programme highlights the fact that women ‘beneficiaries’ bear the economic and social cost of the programme without apparent benefit to themselves or even necessarily to the household in the short or longer term. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Health, International Financial Institutions Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2008

Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2008. Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Financing gender equality in the context of development and democracy requires specific and focused attention to allocating budgetary resources for the education, health care, training, skills and entrepreneurial development that is necessary to improve the lives of girls and women and to promote the overall economic empowerment of women. In order for this to occur in a predictable and sustainable manner, there must be a strategic rethinking of frameworks of fiscal policy, public finance, debt sustainability, monetary policy, exchange rate management, financial market regulation, trade reform and the negotiation of trade agreements. Increasingly, these areas are no longer the sole preserve of domestic policy makers but are becoming interlinked with the operations of the broader multilateral trading system (MTS), global finance and global macroeconomic arrangements through formal processes of coherence between trade and financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO). This is also true of the harmonisation of aid under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (Williams, 2007, p. 3)."

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations

Year: 2008

Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women’s Welfare and Education

Citation:

Babalola, Folaranmi Dapo. 2010. "Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women's Welfare and Education." Paper presented at the International Conference organized by United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), Dakar, May 3-7.

Author: Folaranmi Dapo Babalola

Annotation:

“Energy and women are linked in many diverse ways, particularly through the nature of the (predominantly biomass) energy resource base, the characteristics of the household and community economy, the features of energy policy, and the position of women in families and communities. Energy can be a vital entry point for improving the position of women in households and societies. To realise this potential, energy must be brought to centre stage and given the same importance as the other major global issues. In developing countries, especially in rural areas, 7% of world primary energy demand rely on biomass, such as fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural waste and animal dung, to meet their energy needs for cooking (IEA, 2006). The use of these traditional fuels in open fires or with simple stoves is not only less efficient and more polluting than modern energy options, but they are also unreliable, not easily controllable, and subject to various supply constraints (Heruela, and Wickramasinghe, 2008). The poor in developing countries therefore pay much more in terms of health impacts, collection time, and energy quality for the equivalent level of energy services as their counterparts in the developed world" (Babalola, 2010, p. 2).
 
“The significance of the energy sector within the broader poverty-energy-environment-nexus is well established (Adelekan and Jerome, 2006). Reliance on traditional biomass energy is particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting in some countries for 70 to 90% of primary energy supply and up to 95% of the total consumption" (p. 2).
 
“African countries continue to rely on biomass energy to meet the bulk of their household energy requirements. In Nigeria, it is estimated that about 91% of the household energy needs are met by biomass (Karekezi, 1999). An important step to finding lasting solutions to gender disparity in household energy problems might be a better understanding of the household sector i.e. accessibility and affordability of the various energy sources, household consumption pattern and impacts of fuel shortages; all these will help to fast track possible solution and plan for engendering gender empowerment. The study was therefore conducted in selected rural and urban areas of southwest Nigeria with the view to evaluating the households’ energy consumption pattern and the impacts on the welfare and standard of living of women and girl child in particular” (p. 3).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2010

The Influence of Gender Budgeting in Indian States on Gender Inequality and Fiscal Spending

Citation:

Stotsky, Janet G., and Asad Zaman. 2016. “The Influence of Gender Budgeting in Indian States on Gender Inequality and Fiscal Spending.” IMF Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 

Authors: Janet G. Stotsky, Asad Zaman

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of gender budgeting in India on gender inequality and fiscal spending. Gender budgeting is an approach to budgeting in which governments use fiscal policies and administration to address gender inequality and women’s advancement. There is little quantitative study of its impact. Indian states offer a relatively unique framework for assessing the effect of gender budgeting. States with gender budgeting efforts have made more progress on gender equality in primary school enrollment than those without, though economic growth appears insufficient to generate equality on its own. The implications of gender budgeting for fiscal spending were more ambiguous.

Keywords: Fiscal policy, gender budgeting, gender inequality, Indian states

Topics: Economies, Education, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Kolovich, Lisa, and Sakina Shibuya. 2016. “Middle East and Central Asia: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/151. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lisa Kolovich , Sakina Shibuya

Abstract:

Gender budgeting uses fiscal policies to promote gender equality and women's advancement, but is struggling to take hold in the Middle East and Central Asia. We provide an overview of two gender budgeting efforts in the region--Morocco and Afghanistan. Achievements in these two countries include increasing female primary and secondary education enrollment rates and reducing maternal mortality. But the region not only needs to use fiscal policies for women's advancement, but also reform tax and financial laws, enforce laws that assure women's safety in public, and change laws that prevent women from taking advantage of employment opportunities.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, gender inequality, middle east, Central Asia

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Central Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Morocco

Year: 2016

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