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Economic Inequality

Critical Perspectives on Financial and Economic Crises: Heterodox Macroeconomics Meets Feminist Economics

Citation:

 Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, James Heintz, and Stephanie Seguino. 2013. "Critical Perspectives on Financial and Economic Crises: Heterodox Macroeconomics Meets Feminist Economics." Feminist Economics 19 (3): 4-31.

Authors: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, James Heintz, Stephanie Seguino

Abstract:

This contribution brings together various strands of analysis about the causes, consequences, and policy ramifications of economic crises, with a specific focus on distributional dynamics. It aims to facilitate a conversation between macroeconomic theorists of crises and instability and feminist economists and scholars of intergroup inequality. Macroeconomic analyses of the Great Recession have centered on the causal role of financial deregulation, capital flow imbalances, and growth of income and wealth inequality. That work tends to be divorced from research that analyzes broader distributional impacts, prior to the crisis and subsequently, transmitted through economic channels and government responses. This study's framework emphasizes the role of stratification along multiple trajectories – race, class, and gender – in contributing to economic crises and in shaping their distributional dynamics. The study underscores the long-run effects of the 2008 crisis on well-being, highlighted in feminist economists’ research on social reproduction and often missed in the macroeconomics literature.

Keywords: stratification, financialization, macroeconomics, Crisis

Topics: Class, Economies, Care Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminist Economics, Feminisms, Gender, Race

Year: 2013

Who Carries the Water: Feminist Reflections on Anatolian Hydroelectric Power Plants, Rivers, and Resistance

Citation:

Belkis, Fatma, and İz Öztat. 2018. “Who Carries the Water: Feminist Reflections on Anatolian Hydroelectric Power Plants, Rivers, and Resistance.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 14 (3): 368–73.

Authors: Fatma Belkis, İz Öztat

Annotation:

Summary:
"Following the Gezi Uprising in 2013, we felt the need to learn from grassroots struggles, ongoing since 1998, against the construction of small hydroelectric power plants (SHPs) on rivers in numerous valleys of Anatolia. The attempt by the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government to destroy Gezi Park and the occupation that followed made clear the widespread impact of construction-led growth policies in urban and rural contexts. The anti-SHP movement’s slogan is “Rivers will flow free,” which resonated with us as a radical desire for the right to life of all beings. The slogan voices a demand for the agency of rivers and challenges state and corporate decisions to control their courses with pipes, dams, and dredging.
 
"The grassroots struggle against SHPs coincides with legislation that allows the leasing of water-use rights in rivers to private energy companies for at least fortynine years. Following the privatization “the AKP government launched an aggressive programme” whose goal was building “2,000 small (and large) hydropower plants by 2023, the centennial of the Turkish Republic”(Erensu and Karaman 2017, 14). Governments, corporations, and banks frame SHPs as renewable energy production solutions that facilitate “development,” but in Turkey, as in many other places, their implementation involves removing the water from its bed and running it through pipes to feed multiple turbines, which deprives all living creatures in the ecosystem of their life source.
 
"Our collaborative installation work Who Carries the Water (Belkıs and Öztat 2015) took form as we visited valleys where residents resist the process of dispossession that ensues with the construction of SHPs" (Belkis and Öztat 2018, 368-9).

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, Privatization Regions: MENA, Asia, Europe, Southern Europe

Year: 2018

Re-Conceptualising Gender and Urban Water Inequality: Applying a Critical Feminist Approach to Water Inequality in Dhaka

Citation:

Sulley, Rosa. 2018. "Re-Conceptualising Gender and Urban Water Inequality Applying a Critical Feminist Approach to Water Inequality in Dhaka." DPU Working Paper No. 195, Development Planning Unit, The Bartlett, University College London.

Author: Rosa Sulley

Abstract:

Commonly, urban water inequality has been conceptualised in scholarship and policy as a fixed issue; little attention has been given to dynamic changes over time, space, identity, and relations. Influenced by traditional feminist critiques of development and of who suffers the responsibilities of water management, the consequence has been a focus on women. However, gender mainstreaming approaches aiming to empower women are often critiqued for (re)producing static narratives, and overlooking the multiple experiences and processes of (re)production of inequality. This paper places itself within this debate, aiming to enhance analytical approaches to studying urban water inequality and challenge pervasive simplified, homogenised accounts of urban water inequality. Through critical application of recent conceptual shifts in feminist theorising, it brings together Feminist Political Ecology and Intersectionality literatures to formulate a framework for analysis of urban water inequality. This explores the role and importance of relational subjectivities, power dynamics, hydrosocial relations, and dynamic relations across and within micro and macro scales. The paper focuses on how these dynamics manifest in Dhaka's informal settlements. Bangladesh shows the complex and multi-layered nature of both how water inequality is (re)produced, and how people negotiate it in their everyday lives. The insights, particularly findings of informal and formal fluidity, are then reflected upon in relation to the framework and future research agendas.

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Economies Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2018

Extractivism, Gender, and Disease: An Intersectional Approach to Inequalities

Citation:

Cielo, Cristina, and Lisset Coba. 2018. "Extractivism, Gender, and Disease: An Intersectional Approach to Inequalities." Ethics & International Affairs 32 (2): 169-78.

Authors: Cristina Cielo, Lisset Coba

Abstract:

Social inequalities can only be understood through the interaction of their multiple dimensions. In this essay, we show that the economic and environmental impacts of natural resource extraction exacerbate gendered disparities through the intensification and devaluation of care work. A chikungunya epidemic in the refinery city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, serves to highlight the embodied and structural violence of unhealthy conditions. Despite its promises of development, the extraction-based economy in Esmeraldas has not increased its vulnerable populations’ opportunities. It has, instead, deepened class and gendered hierarchies. In this context, the most severe effects of chikungunya are experienced by women, who bear the burden of social reproduction and sustaining lives under constant threat. (Cambridge University Press) 

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2018

Contextualising and Conceptualising Gender and Climate Change in Africa

Citation:

Bob, Urmilla, and Agnes Babugura. 2014. “Contextualising and Conceptualising Gender and Climate Change in Africa.” Agenda 28 (3): 3-15.

Authors: Urmilla Bob, Agnes Babugura

Abstract:

This overview provides the conceptual and contextual foundation for the issue on ‘Gender and climate change’. Drawing on a literature review and appraisal of the contributions in this issue, we foreground the current key climate change debates. There is consensus that climate change is a global challenge with devastating impacts at different scales. It is also established in the literature that some communities and groups are more vulnerable than others. In mapping the issues we provide an overview of the gender and climate change debates, as the thematic focus. The importance of engendering policy development, research as well as adaptation and mitigation strategies are underscored. The discussion then provides a brief overview of climate change trends and dynamics in Africa, the continent which is viewed as the most vulnerable to climate change impacts due to persistent poverty (including socio-economic inequalities), unsustainable and insecure livelihoods, high reliance on the natural resource base, limited access to information and technologies, and weak institutions and state fragility. This is followed by a thematic examination of the key issues related to gender and climate change in Africa which include women as consumers, access to land and natural resources, agricultural production and food security, health aspects, security issues and adaptation and mitigation support. Finally, concluding remarks are forwarded which resonate with the contributions by writers in the issue.

Keywords: gender, women, climate change, vulnerability, africa

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Transport Systems and Their Impact con Gender Equity

Citation:

Lecompte, María Carolina, and Juan Pablo Bocarejo S. 2017. "Transport Systems and their Impact con Gender Equity". Transportation Research Procedia 25: 4245-57.

Authors: María Carolina Lecompte, Juan Pablo Bocarejo S.

Abstract:

This paper summarizes recent research on unequal access to transport systems. It focuses on how gender and socioeconomic inequalities may be aggravated by differences in transport accessibility. The investigation evaluated three hypothesis; first, transport accessibility is different between men and women with similar socioeconomic background; second due to these differences, women have less transport accessibility to jobs; and third, that these differences are stronger in lower income socioeconomic areas. Four zones in Bogotá were studied in more detail. The data used consisted of Bogota's 2005 mobility survey, and two stated and revealed preference surveys developed by the University of the Andes to study socioeconomic and gender accessibility. This data helped establish differences in daily practices of men and women from different socioeconomic strata, as well as the access characteristics to different transport systems. The data was also used to estimate the real accessibility of the four zones, and this was gender disaggregated. In conclusion, it was found that women generally travel less than men and they spend more than men in transport, even though their trips may be shorter. This did result in lower transport accessibility to job locations. Also, it was found that gender differences were stronger in lower socioeconomic areas. With these results, the investigation states the differences and several possible policies that could be considered to diminish the inequity.

Keywords: transport accessibility, gender, Inequalities

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan, and Cheryl Doss. 2013. “Property Rights and the Gender Distribution of Wealth in Ecuador, Ghana and India.” Journal of Economic Inequality 11 (2): 249–65.

Authors: Cheryl Doss, Carmen Diana Deere, Abena D. Oduro, Hema Swaminathan

Abstract:

Women’s ability to accumulate wealth is often attributed to whether they have property rights; i.e., a legal personality to own and manage property. In this paper we argue that basic property rights are insufficient; whether women are able to accumulate wealth also depends upon the marital and inheritance regimes in particular contexts. Drawing upon surveys which collected individual level ownership data in Ecuador, Ghana and the state of Karnataka in India, we estimate married women’s share of couple wealth and relate it to how assets are owned within marriage as well as to different inheritance regimes and practices. In Ecuador, married women own 44 %, in Ghana, 19 %, and in Karnataka, 9 % of couple wealth. Ecuador is characterized by the partial community property regime in marriage while inheritance laws provide for all children, irrespective of sex, to be treated equally, norms that are largely followed in practice. In contrast, Ghana and India are characterized by the separation of property regime which does not recognize wives’ contribution to the formation of marital property, and by inheritance practices that are strongly male biased. Reforming marital and inheritance regimes must remain a top priority if gender economic equality is to be attained.

Keywords: inheritance regimes, marital regimes, women's property rights, asset ownership, wealth in developing countries

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Ecuador, Ghana, India

Year: 2013

Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, and Magdalena Leon. 1998. “Gender, Land, and Water: From Reform to Counter-Reform in Latin America.” Agriculture and Human Values 15(4): 375–86.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena Leon

Abstract:

Rural women did not fare very well in the land reforms carried out during the Latin American “reformist period” of the 1960s and 1970s, with women being under-represented among the beneficiaries. It is argued that women have been excluded from access to and control over water for similar reasons that they were excluded from access to land during these reforms. The paper also investigates the extent to which women have gained or lost access to land during the “counter-reforms” of the 1980s and 1990s. Under the neo-liberal agenda, production cooperatives as well as communal access to land have largely been undermined in favor of privatization and the individual parcelization of collectives. Significant land titling efforts are also being carried out throughout the region to promote the development of a vigorous land market. This latter period has also been characterized by the growth of the feminist movement throughout Latin America and a growing commitment by states to gender equity. The paper reviews the extent to which rural women‘s access to land and, thus, water has potentially been enhanced by recent changes in agrarian and legal codes.
 

Keywords: cooperatives, land markets, land reform, gender and land, Latin American rural women, Neo-liberal restructuring

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 1998

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

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