Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Development

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

NGOs and Post-Conflict Recovery: The Leitana Nehan Women's Development Agency, Bougainville

Citation:

Hakena, Helen, Peter Ninnes, and Bert Jenkins, eds. 2006. NGOs and Post-Conflict Recovery: The Leitana Nehan Women’s Development Agency, Bougainville. Canberra: ANU E Press and Asia Pacific Press.

Authors: Helen Hakena, Bert A. Jenkins, Peter Ninnes

Annotation:

Summary:
When government services have broken down or when international nongovernment organisations are uninterested or unable to help, grassroots non-government organisations provide important humanitarian, educational and advocacy services. Yet, too often the story of the crucial role played by these organisations in conflict and post-conflict recovery goes unheard. The Leitana Nehan Women's Development Agency provides many salutary lessons for grassroots non-government organisations undertaking peacemaking and peace-building work. In the thirteen years of its existence, it has contributed humanitarian assistance, provided education programs on peace, gender issues and community development, and has become a powerful advocate for women's and children's rights at all levels of society. Its work has been recognised through the award of a United Nations' Millennium Peace Price in 2000 and a Pacific Peace Prize in 2004. This book makes a unique contribution to understanding the role of nongovernment organisations in promoting peace and development and gender issues in the South West Pacific. (Summary from ANU Press)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Secessionist Wars, Development, Gender, Women, conflict, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2006

Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala

Citation:

Crystal, Valerie, Shin Imai, and Bernadette Maheandiran. 2014. “Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne D’Études Du Développement 35 (2): 285–303.

Authors: Shin Imai, Bernadette Maheandiran, Valerie Crystal

Abstract:

This case study looks at the avenues open for addressing serious allegations of murder, rape and assault brought by indigenous Guatemalans against a Canadian mining company, HudBay Minerals. While first-generation legal and development policy reforms have facilitated foreign mining in Guatemala, second-generation reforms have failed to address effectively conflicts arising from the development projects. The judicial mechanisms available in Guatemala are difficult to access and suffer from problems of corruption and intimidation. Relevant corporate social responsibility policies and mechanisms lack the necessary enforcement powers. Canadian courts have been reluctant to permit lawsuits against Canadian parent companies; however, in Choc v. HudBay and Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, Ontario judges have allowed cases to proceed on the merits of the case, providing an important, if limited, avenue toward corporate accountability.

Keywords: mining, Latin America, Chevron, HudBay, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Corruption, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Canada, Guatemala

Year: 2014

Inclusive Security and Peaceful Societies: Exploring the Evidence

Citation:

O’Reilly, Marie. 2016. “Inclusive Security and Peaceful Societies: Exploring the Evidence.” Prism : A Journal of the Center for Complex Operatioton 6 (1): 20–33.

Author: Marie O'Reilly

Annotation:

Summary: 
"The full impact of women's participation on peace and security outcomes remains poorly understood. But a recent increase in quantitative and qualitative research has the potential to transform the status quo. In outlining the existing data, this article shows how women's inclusion helps prevent conflict, create peace, and sustain security after war ends" (O'Reilly 2016, 21-2). 

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Development, Gender, Women, conflict, peace and security, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Security

Year: 2016

Feminist Reactions to the Contemporary Security Regime

Citation:

Young, Iris Marion. 2003. “Feminist Reactions to the Contemporary Security Regime.” Hypatia 18 (1): 223–31.

Author: Iris Marion Young

Abstract:

The essay theorizes the logic of masculinist protection as an apparently benign form of male domination. It then argues that authoritarian government is often justified through a logic of masculinist protection, and that this is the form of justification for the security regime that has emerged in the United States since September 11, 2001. I argue that those who live under a security regime live within an oppressive protection racket. The paper ends by cautioning feminists not ourselves to adopt a stance of protector toward women in so-called less developed societies.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender, Masculinity/ies, peace and security, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America

Year: 2003

Pathways Out of Poverty: Women - 'the forgotten Gender' - and the Artisanal Fisheries Sector of Sierra Leone

Citation:

Baio, Andrew, Roberta Curiazi, Ndomahina Lebbie, Thomas Lebbie, Ranita Sandi, Andy Thorpe, and David Whitmarsh. 2013. “Pathways Out of Poverty: Women - the ‘forgotten Gender’ - and the Artisanal Fisheries Sector of Sierra Leone.” African Historical Review 45 (1): 46–61.

Authors: Andrew Baio, Roberta Curiazi, Ndomahina Lebbie, Thomas Lebbie, Ranita Sandi, Andy Thorpe, David Whitmarsh

Abstract:

In a number of low-income countries the fisheries sector has been shown to be instrumental in meeting key development goals, specifically in combating malnutrition, but the crucial contribution of women within this sector has been largely overlooked. This is particularly true in Sierra Leone, despite gender featuring prominently in the country’s poverty reduction strategy. This article therefore examines the history of female involvement in the sector, how this involvement was transformed by the civil war, and assesses whether the various current initiatives to support women in the post-harvest sector offer a realistic ‘pathway out of poverty’.

Keywords: fish distribution chain, food security, women, poverty alleviation, Sierra Leone

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2013

Gender Equality, Economic Growth, and Women’s Agency: The “Endless Variety” and “Monotonous Similarity” of Patriarchal Constraints

Citation:

Kabeer, Naila. 2016. “Gender Equality, Economic Growth, and Women’s Agency: The ‘Endless Variety’ and ‘Monotonous Similarity’ of Patriarchal Constraints.” Feminist Economics 22 (1): 295–321.

Author: Naila Kabeer

Abstract:

Macroeconometric studies generally find fairly robust evidence that gender equality has a positive impact on economic growth, but reverse findings relating to the impact of economic growth on gender equality are far less consistent. The high level of aggregation at which these studies are carried out makes it difficult to ascertain the causal pathways that might explain this asymmetry in impacts. Using a feminist institutional framework, this contribution explores studies carried out at lower levels of analysis for insights into the pathways likely to be driving these two sets of relationships and a possible explanation for their asymmetry.

Keywords: agency, empowerment, development, growth, inequality, gender

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity

Year: 2016

Property Rights and Gender Bias: Evidence from Land Reform in West Bengal

Citation:

Bhalotra, Sonia, Abhishek Chakravarty, Dilip Mookherjee, and Francisco J. Pino. 2016. “Property Rights and Gender Bias: Evidence from Land Reform in West Bengal.” IZA Discussion Paper 9930, The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany. 

Authors: Sonia Bhalotra, Abhishek Chakravarty, Dilip Mookherjee, Francisco J. Pino

Abstract:

While land reforms are typically pursued in order to raise productivity and reduce inequality across households, an unintended consequence may be increased within-household gender inequality. We analyse a tenancy registration programme in West Bengal, and find that it increased child survival and reduced fertility. However, we also find that it intensified son preference in families without a first-born son to inherit the land title. These families exhibit no reduction in fertility, an increase in the probability that a subsequent birth is male, and a substantial increase in the survival advantage of subsequent sons over daughters.

Keywords: land reform, gender, infant mortality, sex ratio, fertility, Property Rights

Topics: Development, Economies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

(Re)colonizing Agriculture in the Name of 'Development'

Caitlin Ryan

October 30, 2018

Campus Center, Room 3540, UMass Boston

  • Video
  • Register
Topics
Regions

Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali

Citation:

Djoudi, H., and M. Brockhaus. 2011. “Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali.” International Forestry Review 13 (2): 123–35.

Authors: H. Djoudi, M. Brockhaus

Keywords: gender, climate change, adaptation, Faguibine, Mali

Annotation:

Summary: 
The growing risk of vulnerability to climate change is widely discussed in the scientific and political sphere. More evidence from local case studies emerges that document this risk. Vulnerability to climate change and variability appears most likely to negatively affect poor people, particularly women. Tendencies to widen existing inequalities have been observed. In the Lake Faguibine area in Northern Mali the social, political and ecological conditions have drastically changed in the last three decades. We conducted 6 single gender participatory workshops using PRA in two communities. The workshops assessed vulnerability and adaptive strategies to climate variability and change for livestock and forest based livelihoods. Our results show divergences in the adaptive strategies of men and women. Migration represented one of the most important strategies for men. Women perceived this strategy more as a cause of vulnerability than an adaptive strategy. Traditionally male activities have been added to the workload of women (e.g. small ruminant herding). The historical axes show that development projects targeting women have not integrated climate change and variability into their planning. Most activities have been built around small scale agriculture. With the drying out of Lake Faguibine, those water dependent activities are no longer relevant. Women have developed their own adaptive strategies based on newly emerged forest resources in the former lake area (e.g. charcoal production). However, women are hindered from realizing the potential of these new activities. This is due to loss of person power in the household, unclear access to natural resources, lack of knowledge and financial resources. Lack of power to influence decision at the household and community levels as well as limited market opportunities for women are additional factors. Even though women's vulnerability is increasing in the short term, over the long term the emerging changes in women's roles could lead to positive impacts. These impacts could be both societal (division of labor and power, new social spaces), and economic (market access, livestock wealth). Locally specific gender sensitive analysis of vulnerability is needed to understand dynamics and interaction of divergent adaptive strategies. Societal and political change at broader scales is needed to realize potential benefits for women in the long term. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2011

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Development