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conflict

Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In

Citation:

Davies, Sara E. and Jacqui True. 2015. “Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In.” Security Dialogue 46 (6): 495-512.

Authors: Sara E. Davies, Jacqui True

Abstract:

Over the past decade, significant global attention has been paid to the issue of ‘widespread and systematic’ sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). To contribute to the prevention of SGBV, researchers have examined the relationship between the presence of armed conflict and the causes of SGBV. Much of this causal literature has focused on the individual and group perpetrator dynamics that fuel SGBV. However, we argue that research needs to lay bare the roots of SGBV in normalized and systemic gender discrimination. This article brings back structural gender inequality as a causal explanation for SGBV. In order to better understand and prevent SGBV, we propose a critical knowledge base that identifies causal patterns of gendered violence by building on existing indicators of gender discrimination.

Keywords: gender, international security, peace and security, political violence, women

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, peace and security, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1820, Sexual Violence

Year: 2015

Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri, Lana Khattab and Jana Naujoks. 2017. “Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 103-19.

Authors: Henri Myrttinen, Lana Khattab, Jana Naujoks

Abstract:

Masculinities in conflict-affected and peacebuilding contexts have generally speaking been under-researched. Much of the existing research focuses relatively narrowly on men and their ‘violences’, especially that of combatants. Conceptually, much of the policy debate has revolved around either men’s ‘innate’ propensity to violence or relatively simplistic uses of frameworks such as hegemonic, military/militarized, or ‘hyper’-masculinities. These discourses have often been reinforced and reproduced without relating them to their respective local historical, political, and socio-economic contexts. In academic circles, the discussion is more advanced and progressive, but this has yet to filter through to on-the-ground work. Considering the overwhelming role men play in producing and reproducing conflict-related and other forms of violence, a better understanding of the links between masculinities and violence – as well as non-violence – should be central to examining gender, conflict, and peace. Nonetheless, currently a large part of masculinities are side-lined in research, such as those of non-combatants or displaced persons, the associated challenges of ‘thwarted masculinities’, or the positive agency of peacebuilders. Non-heterosexual masculinities also are largely invisible. Based on recent multi-country field research, we aim to highlight some of the under-researched issues revolving around conflict-affected masculinities while also discussing some conceptual challenges arising as a result. Our two key arguments are that the notion of ‘hegemonic masculinities’ in conflict-affected situations needs to be re-examined and re-articulated in more nuanced ways, and that the scope of studying masculinities in these situations needs to be broadened to go beyond merely examining the violences of men.

Keywords: masculinities, conflict, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, conflict, peace and security, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Violence

Year: 2017

War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2016. “War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism.” Postcolonial Studies 19 (4): 378-92.

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

This article examines the structures of international relations that facilitate political violence in postcolonial states. It explores the intersections of patriarchy and imperialism in the contemporary political economy to understand how armed conflict and political violence in postcolonial states form an integral element of the global economy of accumulation in deeply gendered ways. By focusing on the structural level of analysis, this article argues that the siting of armed conflict in postcolonial contexts serves to maintain neo-colonial relations of exploitation between the West and non-West, and is made both possible and effective through the gendering of political identities and types of work performed in the global economy. I argue here that armed conflict is a form of feminized labour in the global economy. Despite the fact that performing violence is a physically masculine form of labour, the outsourcing of armed conflict as labour in the political economy is ‘feminized’ in that it represents the flexibilization of labour and informalization of market participation. So while at the same time that this work is fulfilling hegemonic ideals of militarized masculinity within the domestic context, at the international level it actually demonstrates the ‘weakness’ or ‘otherness’ of the ‘failed’/ feminized state in which this violence occurs, and legitimizes and hence re-entrenches the hegemonic relations between the core and periphery on the basis of problematizing the ‘weak’ state’s masculinity. It is through the discursive construction of the non- Western world as the site of contemporary political violence that mainstream international relations reproduces an orientalist approach to both understanding and addressing the ‘war puzzle’.

 

Keywords: political economy, neo-colonialism, war, gender, feminized labour, feminist international relations, postcolonial theory

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, conflict, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict

Year: 2016

The Politics of Counting and Reporting Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: the Case of Myanmar

Citation:

Davies, Sara E., and Jacqui True. 2017. “The Politics of Counting and Reporting Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: the Case of Myanmar.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 19 (1): 4-21.

Authors: Sara E. Davies, Jacqui True

Abstract:

Scholars, states and international organizations have begun to systematically count, document and compare sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in conflict-affected countries. Qualitative and quantitative studies point to a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon, where there is a high prevalence but low level of actual reporting of SGBV. We investigate the conditions in which SGBV is reported or, more significantly, is not reported to discover the trends of reporting in politically oppressive environments where SGBV is thought to be occurring. We ask how the power to report in local conflict-affected areas is affected by national political tensions and pervasive gender discrimination. Reporting of SGBV in Myanmar, a country that has experienced multiple, protracted conflicts since independence, is examined. Analysis of open-access reports over a fifteen-year period reveals a pattern of silence that we argue is rooted in pervasive discriminatory civil and physical practices against women. Engaging with the deeply politicized and gender discriminatory context of conflict-affected societies enables us to see the anomalies of SGBV data and to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge about SGBV.

Keywords: ethnic conflict, human rights reporting, feminist methodology, Myanmar, Conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Property Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2017

Motherhood, Mining and Modernity in the Peruvian Highlands from Corporate Development to Social Mobilization

Citation:

Grieco, Kyra. 2016. “Motherhood, Mining and Modernity in the Peruvian Highlands from Corporate Development to Social Mobilization.” In Negotiating Normativity, 131–46. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-30984-2_8.

Author: Kyra Grieco

Annotation:

During the last 20 years, extractive activities in Peru have been promoted by national governments as the only viable road to development in the Andes. This paradigm of extractive modernity is increasingly questioned by protest movements who oppose the implementation of new mining projects on the grounds of their social and environmental consequences. In this context, the gendered impacts of mining and mobilization have rarely been addressed, yet women play an increasingly important role both as targets of mining-led or related development programs and as participants in social mobilization against extractive industries. In both cases, women's physical bodies and social role as mothers are at the center of a model of modernity, and to a critique of the ‘other.’This chapter will focus on women as subjects and objects of contested modernity. It shall present results from ethnographic research carried out in the region of Cajamarca, one of the areas of heavy mining investment and the site of intense social conflict since 2000. An overview of the paradigms of modernity will be presented in terms of the role that each of these models assigns to women, through the realm of maternity. The actual experiences of women in this contested terrain, their mediation and resistance to the constraints imposed on them by existing models or modernity, maternity and womanhood will allow us to explore the differences and intersections of competing discourses of modernity. At the same time, we shall focus on the creative agency with which women operate within each one of these discourses, as active subjects in the definition and implementation of their rights. (Summary from Springer Link)

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2016

Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Joanna Tidy. 2017. “Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 99-102.

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Joanna Tidy

Annotation:

"This special issue advances what we identify as an emerging curiosity within accounts of military masculinities. This curiosity concerns the silences within and disruptions to our well-established and perhaps too comfortable understandings of and empirical focal points for military masculinities, gender, and war. The special issue is situated within emerging critiques of military masculinities. Scholars such as Stachowitsch (2015), Richter-Montpetit (2007), Howell (2007), and Belkin (2012) all expand where we locate gendered militarist logics of war and its various contestations. In common with these scholars, the contributors to this special issue trouble the ease with which we might be tempted to synonymize militaries, war, and a neat, ‘hegemonic’ masculinity. Taking the disruptions, the asides, and the silences seriously, we claim, challenges the common wisdoms of military masculinities, gender, and war in productive and necessary ways" (Chishom and Tidy, 2017, p. 99).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, conflict, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism

Year: 2017

Explaining the Global Diffusion of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2016. “Explaining the Global Diffusion of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 307-23.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

The United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) is the most significant international normative framework addressing the gender-specific impacts of conflict on women and girls including protection against sexual and gender-based violence, promoting women’s participation in peace and security and supporting their roles as peace builders in the prevention of conflict. In the decade since 2004 when the UN Secretary- General first called for Women, Peace and Security National Action Plans to implement the 1325 agenda in national-level peace and security institutions and policies, 55 countries have adopted them. This article analyses the global patterns of Women, Peace and Security policy diffusion, especially the effects of conflict, democracy and women in power on the propensity for states to implement Women, Peace and Security National Action Plans. Examining patterns of diffusion enables an assessment of how far the Women, Peace and Security agenda has spread and what the prospects are for the further diffusion of Women, Peace and Security.
 

Keywords: norm diffusion, international security, gender equality, women, peace and security, United Nations

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2016

Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan

Citation:

Lee-Koo, Katrina. 2016. “Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 336-49.

Author: Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

This article examines Australia’s National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) within the context of global debates on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and its associated resolutions. It demonstrates that Australia has made a strong rhetorical commitment to the United Nations WPS agenda that aligns itself with global feminist goals to enhance the protection and political participation of women in conflict-affected regions. Rhetorically, Australia also supports a broad conceptualisation of global security that challenges the gender relations that create women’s insecurity. However, these words fail the test of practice. The 2012 Australian NAP lacks the architecture to ensure strong, consistent, and comprehensive action on the WPS agenda. This article explores the sites of these failures and argues that addressing these issues is the first necessary step towards reconnecting government rhetoric with WPS outcomes.

Keywords: Australia, National Action Plan, UNSCR 1325, global security

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2016

Women, Peace and Security: Exploring the implementation and integration of UNSCR 1325

Citation:

George, Nicole, and Laura J. Shepherd. 2016. “Women, Peace and Security: Exploring the Implementation and Integration of UNSCR 1325.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 297-306.

Authors: Nicole George, Laura J. Shepherd

Abstract:

This special issue brings together articles that examine how the localisation and implementation of the Women, Peace and Security agenda occurs in policy and practice. In this introduction, we examine the increasing importance of the Women, Peace and Security policy framework in global politics and the inevitable tensions that surround calls for greater local-level institutional implementation. Drawing on findings from the United Nations 2015 Global Study on Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, we consider the evolving nature of Women, Peace and Security policy and advocacy. We look at what is required to develop policy provisions on this agenda which are considered locally meaningful and ‘useful’ in distinct policy contexts.
 

Keywords: women, peace, security, UNSCR 1325, National Action Plan, localisation

Topics: Gender, Women, conflict, peace and security, International Organizations, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2016

National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone

Citation:

Basini, Helen, and Caitlin Ryan. 2016. “National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 390-403.

Authors: Helen Basini, Caitlin Ryan

Abstract:

National Action Plans (NAPs) have been hailed as the preferential mode of implementing United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 at a national level. In recent years, member states, especially post-conflict member states, have been heeding the calls of the United Nations to develop their own National Action Plans. However, there has been limited assessment of whether or not National Action Plans are beneficial to women in post-conflict states. Using evidence from field research in Liberia and Sierra Leone, this article argues that, despite the intent to increase national ownership of 1325 in post-conflict states, National Action Plans are ineffective at creating meaningful local ownership because they are driven by a bureaucratic approach to peacebuilding. Furthermore, implementation of National Action Plans in post-conflict states is hampered by a variety of factors, such as lack of capacity and lack of political will. Finally, we conclude that National Action Plans also do a disservice to the hard work and dedication of local women’s organisations.

Keywords: gender, Liberia, National Action Plans, peace, post-conflict, security, Sierra Leone, UNSCR 1325, women

Topics: Gender, Women, conflict, Governance, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Sierra Leone

Year: 2016

Pages

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