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Climate Change

Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration

Citation:

Rothe, Delf. 2017. "Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 40-7.

Author: Delf Rothe

Abstract:

The research article critically investigates recent European policy proposals that promote migration as an adaptation strategy to increase the resilience of communities vulnerable to the environmental crisis. Such proposals have been welcomed for breaking with alarmist discourses that framed climate-induced migration as a threat to national or international security. The present article seeks to contribute to this ongoing debate by bringing in a fresh perspective that has so far been neglected: the perspective of gender. Drawing on a poststructuralist perspective on gender the article reveals that policy debates on climate-induced migration take place within highly gendered discourses. Applying this perspective to recent policy reports on climate change, migration and resilience, the article helps to paint a more nuanced picture of the highly criticized notion of resilience. The analysis shows that, on the one hand, resilience thinking helped overcoming a masculinized discourse of security as control. On the other hand, it reproduces a series of ‘gender myths’ about the role of women in the so-called Global South.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2017

Water Security Across the Gender Divide

Citation:

Fröhlich, Christiane, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, and Henri Myrttinen. 2018. Water Security Across the Gender Divide. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, Henri Myrttinen

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines water security as a prime example of how the economic, socio-cultural and political-normative systems that regulate access to water reflect the evolving and gendered power relations between different societal groups. Access to water is characterized by inequalities: it depends not only on natural water availability, but also on the respective socio-political context. It is regulated by gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities towards the resource, which are strongly influenced by, among others, tradition, religion, customary law, geographical availability, as well as the historical and socio-political context. While gender has been recognized as a key intervening variable in achieving equitable water access, most studies fail to acknowledge the deep interrelations between social structures and patterns of water use. Proof of these shortcomings is the enduring lack of data on water accessibility, availability and utilization that sufficiently acknowledges the relational nature of gender and other categories of power and difference, like class and socioeconomic status, as well as their comprehensive analysis. This book addresses this major research gap. (Summary from Springer International Publishing)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Bridging Troubled Waters: Water Security Across the Gender Divide
Henri Myrttinen, Roger Cremades, Christiane Fröhlich and Giovanna Gioli
 
2. Gender and Water in a Changing Climate: Challenges and Opportunities
Farhana Sultana
 
3. More than Women and Men: A Framework for Gender and Intersectionality Research on Environmental Crisis and Conflict
Amber J. Fletcher
 
4. Gender and Water in the Middle East. Local and Global Realities
Mauro van Aken and Anita De Donato
 
5. Land and Water Reforms in South Africa: "Men in White Coats"
Deepa Joshi, Natasha Donn-Arnold, and Mart Kamphuis
 
6. Integrating Gender Equality in WASH Emergency Response in the Central African Republic 
Beatrice Mosello, Virginie Le Masson, Gladys Le Masson, Elena Diato, and Véronique Barbelet
 
7. Engaging with Gender in Water Governance and Practice in Kenya 
Chinwe Ifejika Speranza and Edward Bikketi
 
8. When Water Security Programmes Seek to Empower Women - A Case Study from Western Nepal 
Floriane Clement and Emma Karki 
 
9. "Just Women" is Not Enough: Toward a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding 
Janpeter Schilling, Rebecca Froese, and Jana Naujoks 
 
10. Calming the Waters, Ploughing the Sea - Can Gender-Responsive Appraoches to Intra-State Water Conflicts Lead to Peacebuilding? Evidence from Lebanon and Nepal 
Henri Myrttinen
 
11. The Role of Women in Transboundary Water Dispute Resolution 
Lynette de Silva, Jennifer C. Veilleux, and Marian J. Neal

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Intersectionality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security

Year: 2018

Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya

Citation:

Singh, Ram, S.M. Feroze, and Lala I.P. Ray. 2013.“Effects of Drought on Livelihoods and Gender Roles: A Case Study of Meghalaya.” Indian Journal of Gender Studies 20 (3): 453–67.

Authors: Ram Singh, S.M. Feroze, Lala I.P. Ray

Abstract:

Climate change has serious repercussions on food security, availability, accessibility and utilisation and food system stability. Women farmers currently account for 45–80 per cent of all food production in developing countries depending on the region. When climate change-related disasters strike, women are more vulnerable than men, and the workload of women and girls increases. In India, women are actively engaged in agricultural activities, including paddy cultivation and fishing, which are both affected by changing weather patterns. Loss of livelihood increases women’s vulnerability and marginalisation. The current study was conducted in 10 villages of Meghalaya, a north-eastern state in India. It concluded that extreme climate variability affects both the sexes but with different consequences as they are subjected to different roles and responsibilities. We suggest empowering women with requisite knowledge of their rights, relevant information and skills, and also by being helped with adequate resources to enable them to act and make their own decisions.

Keywords: drought, women's livelihoods, north-east India, Meghalaya, climate change, women

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Food Security, Gender, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis

Citation:

Ergas, Christina, and Richard York. 2012. “Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis.” Social Science Research 41 (4): 965–76.

Authors: Christina Ergas, Richard York

Abstract:

Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women’s traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women’s status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women’s political status and CO2 emissions per capita. We find that CO2 emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally.

Keywords: gender and environment, women's status, carbon dioxide emissions

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation

Year: 2012

Deconstructing Resilience: Why Gender and Power Matter in Responding to Climate Stress in Bangladesh

Citation:

Jordan, J. C. 2019. “Deconstructing Resilience: Why Gender and Power Matter in Responding to Climate Stress in Bangladesh.” Climate and Development 11 (2): 167–79. 

Author: J.C. Jordan

Abstract:

Resilience is increasingly becoming the new buzz word. This paper examines the utility of the concept of resilience for understanding the gendered experiences of women to climate stress, through case study research in South-west Bangladesh. It provides evidence that resilience, as commonly understood, is inadequate for understanding the intersecting vulnerabilities that women face because of embedded socio-cultural norms and practices. These vulnerabilities culminate in a gendered experience of climate stress, where some groups of women are more likely go without education, food and access to good quality water. Such circuits of control highlight the importance of a more radical, transformational, gendered and power sensitive frame for moving beyond coping mechanisms to strategies that deal with the fundamental root causes of vulnerability to climate stress. A failure to do so risks further reinforcing gender inequalities due to the reality of social difference and inequities within local power structures.

Keywords: Resilience, vulnerability, gender, climate stress, Bangladesh

Topics: Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence That Gender Matters

Citation:

Twyman, Jennifer, Molly Green, Quinn Bernier, Patti Kristjanson, Sandra Russo, Arame Tall, Edidah Ampaire, Mary Nyasimi, Joash Mango, Sarah McKune, Caroline Mwongera, Yacine Ndourba. 2014. “Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence That Gender Matters.” CCAFS Working Paper 83, CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen.

Authors: Jennifer Twyman, Molly Green, Quinn Bernier, Patti Kristjanson, Sandra Russo, Arame Tall, Edidah Ampaire, Mary Nyasimi, Joash Mango, Sarah McKune, Caroline Mwongera, Yacine Ndourba

Abstract:

This paper presents the initial data analyses of the CCAFS gender survey implemented in four sites in Africa. Using descriptive statistics we show gender differences in terms of perceptions of climate change, awareness and adoption of climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices, and types and sources of agro-climatic information in the four sites. We find that both men and women are experiencing changes in long-run weather patterns and that they are changing their behaviours in response; albeit relatively minor shifts in existing agricultural practices. For example, the most prevalent changes reported include switching crop varieties, switching types of crops and changing planting dates. As expected, women are less aware of many CSA practices. Encouragingly, this same pattern does not hold when it comes to adoption; in many cases, in East Africa in particular, women, when aware, are more likely than or just as likely as men to adopt CSA practices. In West Africa, overall, the adoption of these practices was much lower. In addition, we see that access to information from different sources varies greatly between men and women and among the sites; however, promisingly, those with access to information report using it to make changes to their agricultural practices. Our findings suggest that targeting women with climate and agricultural information is likely to result in uptake of new agricultural practices for adaptation.

Keywords: gender, climate change, climate smart agriculture, climate information, adaptation

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011

Citation:

Kruse, Johannes. 2014. “Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011.” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 14 (4): 349–70. 

Author: Johannes Kruse

Abstract:

This paper examines which factors influence women’s descriptive representation in state delegations to the international climate change negotiations. Due to the gendered nature of climate change as an issue, it is important to study the representation of women in the negotiations and to examine its normative and functional implications. Theoretically, I propose to look at institutional, socioeconomic, and cultural factors as potential explanations for the variation in the proportion of women in state delegations across countries. I examine this variation by drawing on a dataset containing all member state delegations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations from 1995 to 2011. The theoretical arguments are then tested on these data using a fractional probit model. This is the first comparative study of women’s descriptive representation in international environmental negotiations. It contributes to our under- standing of the variation in women’s representation both over time and across countries. In particular, I find that women’s representation is higher in countries that enjoy a higher level of development and a higher degree of political gender equality. The effects of other institutional and socioeconomic factors such as the level of democracy or gender-equal development remain statistically insignificant. Cultural factors measured by regional proxies show that Eastern Europe and Latin America are positively and the Middle East negatively linked with women’s descriptive representation in delegations.

Keywords: UNFCCC, climate change, women, gender, representation, negotiations, state delegations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, International Organizations, Political Participation

Year: 2014

Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies

Citation:

Bendlin, Lena. 2014. “Women’s Human Rights in a Changing Climate: Highlighting the Distributive Effects of Climate Policies.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 27 (4): 680–98. 

Author: Lena Bendlin

Abstract:

A women’s rights perspective can inform and structure research on climate policy impacts on women. To date, climate policy analysis has mostly considered women as agents of climate protection, that is, objects of mitigation policies, rather than subjects in their own right. However, climate change mitigation involves direct and indirect distributive effects depending on which sectors are involved, which instruments are chosen and how funds are obtained and allocated. Since gender roles impact on individual livelihoods and activities, distributive effects are likely to be gendered. This paper suggests that women’s human rights can be used as a framework for research aiming to fill this gap. They provide a well-developed, tested range of criteria for gender justice. Such assessments would allow for a more systematic and comprehensive understanding of the gendered distributive effects of climate policies, notably with regard to the particularly understudied situation in the industrialized world.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Justice, Livelihoods, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2014

Are Climate Challenges Reinforcing Child and Forced Marriage and Dowry as Adaptation Strategies in the Context of Bangladesh?

Citation:

Alston, Margaret, Kerri Whittenbury, Alex Haynes, and Naomi Godden. 2014. “Are Climate Challenges Reinforcing Child and Forced Marriage and Dowry as Adaptation Strategies in the Context of Bangladesh?” Women’s Studies International Forum 47 (November): 137–44.

Authors: Margaret Alston, Kerri Whittenbury, Alex Haynes, Naomi Godden

Annotation:

Summary:
This paper outlines the link between child and forced marriage, dowry and climate changes in Bangladesh. Drawing on a three year research study on the gendered impacts of climate change, we argue that climate crises are creating significant economic hardships. This has led to dowry being viewed by the families of young men as a form of capital accumulation. For the families of girls, dowry has become a significant burden, a burden that increases with the age of the girl. We argue that the economic crises created by climate challenges are leading to an increase in child and forced marriages because the dowry is cheaper. We conclude that attention to climate challenges must take a much broader focus on social consequences in order to protect the human rights of women and girls in vulnerable communities. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2014

Gender and Climate Change: Emergent Issues for Research, Policy and Practice

Citation:

Rao, Nitya, and Asha Hans. 2018. “Gender and Climate Change: Emergent Issues for Research, Policy and Practice.” Economic and Political Weekly 53 (17): 35-7.

Authors: Nitya Rao, Asha Hans

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender

Year: 2018

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