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Climate Change

Gender Water Networks: Femininity and Masculinity in Water Politics in Bolivia

Citation:

Laurie, Nina. 2011. “Gender Water Networks: Femininity and Masculinity in Water Politics in Bolivia.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35 (1): 172–88. 

Author: Nina Laurie

Abstract:

This article explores how transnational networking around neoliberal water policies intersects with drives to mainstream gender. It examines how understandings of gender are constructed through water conflicts and demonstrates how complex contemporary gendered water experiences are reflected in a variety of networks operating at and across different scales. It challenges essentialist accounts of gender within policy debates, demonstrating how gendered subjectivities are produced, reproduced and disrupted through hybrid networks of struggle. It shows how these subjectivities enter the global arena through the anti-globalization movement. The article suggests that some transnational water networks become hybrid spaces that draw in both those who support and contest neoliberal agendas and argues that contemporary analyses of water must be understood in this context of intersection. It draws on the example of Bolivian water politics to highlight how gender intersects with ethnicity, notions of appropriate femininity and constructions of heroic masculinities. It illustrates how women's activities are circumscribed by understandings of the supermadre and explores how this femininity has become powerful in representational terms. Finally, the article examines the disciplining role of sexuality in producing femininities and understandings of heroic masculinity in national and transnational settings, including the water ministry and wider contemporary Bolivian politics. 

 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2011

Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, and Claudia Ranaboldo. 2011. Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America. Translated by Sara Shields. La Paz, Bolivia: Fundación Tierra.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo

Abstract:

The human rights of women are not yet fully respected despite the progress made in legislation at global, regional, and national levels. Apart from formal legislation, access to and control of land by women should be part of other mechanisms for recognising these rights, in communities, for example, where women are often not included in spaces for participation and decisionmaking. Although the law may protect their land rights, it is difficult for rural women to gain access to the judicial system to protest when these rights are violated.

This scenario of inequality in which women find themselves can be reversed through social and economic changes to give women the tools they need to empower themselves.
 
This book is the result of a collective effort by many women from several parts of Latin America. It is unique because it represents the accumulation of reflections, inputs, visits, discussions, and meetings. The document synthesises various activities taken forward by ILC and other institutions: the publication of six research studies carried out in 2009, two international discussion forums (one held in Colombia and the other in Costa Rica), and the reflections of three specialists on agrarian issues who – drawing on their own experiences and expertise – engage in a dialogue with the research studies to generate further knowledge. (ELLA)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

Through the Debris and Dryness in Liberia

Citation:

Enie, Rosemary Olive Mbone. 2009. “Through the Debris and Dryness in Liberia.” Women in Action (2): 16-20. 

Author: Rosemary Olive Mbone Enie

Abstract:

The article discusses the difficulties faced by women in Liberia brought about by climate change while still recovering from the civil wars. In Liberia, women are responsible for food production, water collection for drinking, sanitation and other household chores. Schools and water services were also affected by the civil wars, making it hard for children and women to resettle. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation helps Liberian communities to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. (Abstract from EBSCOhost).This article utilizes the story of Mama Jenneh Sambola, a farmer from the rural Than Mafa Village of the Matamo Community in Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia to examine the present challenges facing the community regarding climate change. The Liberian civil wars destroyed basic infrastructure and common diseases are still prevalent. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation works closely with Mama Jenneh and her community to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. They later developed a community-based development agency with the goal of providing a platform for people-centered development, allowing for the community to take ownership of sustainable development initiatives with a strong emphasis on water projects. 

Annotation:

This article utilizes the story of Mama Jenneh Sambola, a farmer from the rural Than Mafa Village of the Matamo Community in Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia to examine the present challenges facing the community regarding climate change. The Liberian civil wars destroyed basic infrastructure and common diseases are still prevalent. The Society for Women Empowerment Education and Training (SWEET) Africa Foundation works closely with Mama Jenneh and her community to ensure access to clean and safe water and adequate sanitation. They later developed a community-based development agency with the goal of providing a platform for people-centered development, allowing for the community to take ownership of sustainable development initiatives with a strong emphasis on water projects.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2009

Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community

Citation:

Davidson, Debra J., and Michael Haan. 2012. “Gender, Political Ideology, and Climate Change Beliefs in an Extractive Industry Community.” Population and Environment 34 (2): 217–34.

Authors: Debra J. Davidson, Michael Haan

Abstract:

This paper presents results from a survey on attitudes toward climate change in Alberta, Canada, home to just 10% of Canada's population, but the source of 35% of the country's greenhouse-gas emissions (Environment Canada 2011). Results show high levels of awareness, but much lower levels of perceived climate change impacts for one's self or region. Women expressed significantly greater awareness and sense of perceived impacts about climate change than men; however, gender differences appear predominantly associated with socioeconomic factors. Indeed, in all, political ideology had the strongest predictive value, with individuals voting for the conservative party significantly less likely to anticipate significant societal climate change impacts. This finding, in turn, is strongly associated with beliefs regarding whether climate change is human induced. Particularly notable is the finding that the gender gap in climate change beliefs and perceived impacts is not attributed to gendered social roles, as indicated by occupational and familial status. Instead, gender distinctions appear to be related to the lower tendency for women to ascribe to a conservative political ideology relative to men.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2012

Gender Disparities in Water Resource Management Projects in Njoro Sub-County, Kenya

Citation:

Wambu, Charles K., and Moses Kindiki. 2015. “Gender Disparities in Water Resource Management Projects in Njoro Sub-County, Kenya.” International Journal of Social Science Studies 3 (2): 123–29. doi: 10.11114/ijsss.v3i2.703.

Authors: Charles K. Wambu, Moses Kindiki

Abstract:

Gender disparities are of major concern, in water resources management because men and women play different roles and have different rights on water usage and it is important to take in account the interest of both genders into account. Njoro Sub-county is currently facing a serious problem of water scarcity as a result of several factors such as poor management, loss of forest cover, climatic variability, population increase, and limited endowment of the resource. Water being an economic good and a cost attached to its development, distribution, operation and maintenance there has been gender disparity in its management. Women are responsible for multiple uses of water resources and principal decision-makers regarding domestic uses and sharing responsibility with men for productive uses. However men often control this resource and make major decisions related to location and type of facilities available hence the need to investigate why women despite their vital stake in water affairs, they are frequently overlooked and under-represented in water policy decisions and in water projects committees. The argument in this paper is that gender disparities may have resulted in overexploitation and mismanagement of water resources. 

Keywords: gender disparities, water resource management, gender, equity

Annotation:

This paper analyzes the gendered factors to the planning and implementation of water resource projects and analyzed gender contribution in co-ordination and operation of water resource projects. The study paid specific attention to water management at the household level in the Njoro-Sub county of Kenya. While the women in the community played the largest role in household water collection and usage, men had the most say over water rights and distribution. The study found that most women in the community were barred from the water management and planning process due to cultural customs and traditional gender roles. Sustainable water management projects were not attained, leading to household water shortages that place greater burdens on women. The study concludes with recommendations on including women in water projects due to their extensive knowledge of water resources, along with incorporating women’s rights initiatives that respect the traditional expectations of the community. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2015

Gender in Inter-State Water Conflicts

Citation:

Von Lossow, Tobias. 2015. “Gender in Inter-State Water Conflicts.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 196–201. 

Author: Tobias Von Lossow

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2015

Feminist Solidarity? Women’s Engagement in Politics and the Implications for Water Management in the Darjeeling Himalaya

Citation:

Joshi, Deepa. 2014. “Feminist Solidarity? Women’s Engagement in Politics and the Implications for Water Management in the Darjeeling Himalaya.” Mountain Research and Development 34 (3): 243–54. doi: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D13-00097.1. 

Author: Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

This article explores the motivations of a diverse group of women in the Himalayan region of Darjeeling district in India to engage (or not) in politics, and discusses how women, like men, are vulnerable to power and politics. In Darjeeling, class, ethnicity, and other divides are accentuated by unresolved, decades-long identity based political conflicts that also obscure practical everyday needs and challenges. This defines which women engage in the political domain and, in the dominantly patriarchal political space, how these women relate to the region’s enduring water challenges. In such a setting, it would be ideal to wish for solidarity among women that would overcome class and ethnic divisions and individual political aspirations, making space for gendering political causes and practical challenges. Such solidarity would be especially pertinent in the Eastern Himalaya, given the region’s projected climate vulnerability and fragile democracy. However, reality is far removed from development discourse and policy which suggests an assumed camaraderie among mountain women: an imagined empathy and solidarity in relation both to environmental causes and concerns and the practice of equitable power and politics. In looking at how a diverse group of women in varying positions of power and powerlessness in Darjeeling District are unable, reluctant, or simply uninterested in addressing critical water injustices experienced by some, this paper calls for retrospection on both gender-environment myths and gender-politics fictions. 

Keywords: gender, women, identity, environment, water, politics, feminism, solidarity, Darjeeling

Annotation:

This article explores the realities surrounding women, political conflicts, and injustices in the Darjeeling district of the Eastern Himalaya. It explores the two stereotypes placed on women: that they are more egalitarian and support policies promoting equality, and that women have an inherent link and concern for nature. The author studied a diverse group of women who chose to engage in political discussion formally and informally. Joshi found contrary to popular belief that most women were unwilling to address the complexity of water injustices, having been affected by the same political constraints as men. The stereotype of women as sharing an inherent relationship with the environment is still prominent in policy that marginalizes women. The case study of the Himalayas demonstrates that women are not passive victims of change, especially in the case of climate change adaptation. The issue of water scarcity in the Darjeeling district is due to hydrogeological, financial, and sociopolitical constraints. Women in positions of power were found to not prioritize gender and environmental issues over personal interests. The paper concludes with a recommendation to broaden one’s understanding and defining of gender. 

Topics: Class, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2014

Has the Wheel Rolled Past Women in the South?

Citation:

Woolfrey, Joy and Marie Benoit. 1993. “Has the Wheel Rolled Past Women in the South?” Women & Environments 13 (3): 12-16.

Authors: Joy Woolfrey, Marie Benoit

Abstract:

The role of women in the local goods transport systems of developing countries seems to remain invisible to national planners, policy makers and the international development experts who advise them. A study documents women's transportation roles in Africa. Recognizing women's role in the rural transport system is a key to effective transportation policies in developing countries. Strategies to respond to climate change are currently not about reducing production and economic growth, but aimed toward the adoption of clean, green, and renewable energy technology. Historically, households, farms and communities in rural areas have experienced that advances in technology have uncoupled production from employment (Reed) and increased women's domestic workload (Riney-Kehrberg). Gender imbalances related to technology had "clearly done more to alleviate the workload in the barn than in the farm" (Fleming 32) confirming that "technology merely served as a tangible, countable symbol of women's secondary status on the family farm" (Jellison 183). This trend continues today where technology development is still aimed toward men, as they are considered the decision-makers and users of the technology (Skutsch). Women's role in technology is largely overlooked resulting in many technological innovations that are inappropriate for women's lives (Cecelski). Working toward gender-sensitive policies in technology development have the potential to include women as active participants and promoters of sustainable technologies and challenge dominant technological practices (Milne 2003b).

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Transportation

Year: 1993

‘Gender and Climate Change’: From Impacts to Discourses

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn. 2010. “‘Gender and Climate Change’: From Impacts to Discourses.” Journal of the Indian Ocean Region 6 (2): 223–38.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Abstract:

Whereas the concepts of class, poverty and race make regular appearances in social scientific analyses of global climate change, the same cannot be said for gender. A survey of the academic literature suggests that there is a lack of research into the many gender dimensions of climate change. The small amount of gender-sensitive work that exists has been carried out by gender, environment and development (GED) researchers working for the UN and non-governmental organisations who focus almost exclusively on the material impacts of climate change on vulnerable women in the Global South. In this paper I make two arguments about the current state of research on gender and climate change. First, I argue that although the GED research makes many important contributions to our understanding of the politics of climate change, it also contributes to an unnecessarily narrow understanding of gender, a fixation on ‘impacts’ that are material and measurable, and the view of women in the developing world, particularly those living in countries of the Indian Ocean Region, as victims of ecological crisis. Second, in response to these shortcomings, I argue for the development of a deeper gender analysis where materialist-informed empirical research on women is complemented by critical feminist theorising of the discursive constructions and categories that shape climate politics today.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis

Year: 2010

Gender and Climate Change in Australia

Citation:

Alston, M. 2011. “Gender and Climate Change in Australia.” Journal of Sociology 47 (1): 53–70.

Author: M. Alston

Abstract:

Debate continues to rage as to the veracity of evidence around the permanence of climate change. There is no doubt that changes are occurring across the world and that these changes are causing significant social hardship, including food and water insecurity and large-scale movements of people. What is also emerging in research across the world is that these social impacts and adaptations are highly gendered. This article draws on several years of research on the Australian drought and more recent research on declining water availability in the Murray–Darling Basin of Australia. It notes the significant social impacts, particularly in remote and irrigation areas, and draws out the gendered impacts of these changes. The article argues for more sensitive rights-based social policy to address people who are under extraordinary stress during times of unparalleled change.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2011

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