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Climate Change

Non-Innocent Intersections of Feminism and Environmentalism

Citation:

Lykke, Nina. 2009. “Non-Innocent Intersections of Feminism and Environmentalism.” Kvinder, Køn & Forskning, no. 3–4, 36-44.

Author: Nina Lykke

Annotation:

Summary:
"It was a great pleasure to act as discussant to the key-note address of Stacy Alaimo at conference Gendering Climate and Sustainability in Copenhagen, March 2009. Alaimo’s feminist materialist and eco-critical stance resonates a lot with my own take on the debate on sustainability and eco-critical feminism. I agree very much with Alaimo that a radical rethinking of epistemologies and ethics is urgently needed, and that the issue of climate change makes it even more important to push for new approaches. I also think that feminist epistemologies and reflections on ethics can make important contributions to the general discussion. I shall comment on two issues: 1) Alaimo’s notion of transcorporeality and its epistemological implications, and 2) the question of intersectionalities between feminism and environmentalism" (Lykke 2009, 36). 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism

Year: 2009

Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective

Citation:

Kheel, Marti. 2008. Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. 

Author: Marti Kheel

Annotation:

Summary: 
In Nature Ethics: An Ecofeminist Perspective, Marti Kheel explores the underlying worldview of nature ethics, offering an alternative ecofeminist perspective. She focuses on four prominent representatives of holist philosophy: two early conservationists (Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold) and two contemporary philosophers (Holmes Rolston III, and transpersonal ecologist Warwick Fox). Kheel argues that in directing their moral allegiance to abstract constructs (e.g. species, the ecosystem, or the transpersonal Self) these influential nature theorists represent a masculinist orientation that devalues concern for individual animals. Seeking to heal the divisions among the seemingly disparate movements and philosophies of feminism, animal advocacy, environmental ethics, and holistic health, Kheel proposes an ecofeminist philosophy that underscores the importance of empathy and care for individual beings as well as larger wholes. (Summary from Rowman & Littlefield) 
 
Table of Contents:
1. Finding a Niche for All Animals in Nature Ethics
 
2. Masculine Identity: Born Again 'Man'
 
3. Origins of the Conservation Movement: Preserving Manhood
 
4. Thinking Like a Mountain or Thinking Like a Man?
 
5. The Ecophilosophy of Holmes Rolston
 
6. The Transpersonal Ecology of Warwick Fox
 
7. Ecofeminist Holist Philosophy

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Masculinity/ies

Year: 2008

Ecofeminism and Climate Change

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 2015. "Ecofeminism and Climate Change." Women's Studies International Forum 49: 20-33. 

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary: 
Issues that women traditionally organize around—environmental health, habitats, livelihoods— have been marginalized in debates that treat climate change as a scientific problem requiring technological and scientific solutions without substantially transforming ideologies and economies of domination, exploitation and colonialism. Issues that GLBTQ people organize around—bullying in the schools, hate crimes, marriage equality, fair housing and health care—aren't even noted in climate change discussions. Feminist analyses are well positioned to address these and other structural inequalities in climate crises, and to unmask the gendered character of first-world overconsumption; moreover, both feminist animal studies and posthumanism bring awareness of species as an unexamined dimension in climate change. A queer, posthumanist, ecological and feminist approach—brought together through the intersectional lens of ecofeminism—is needed to tackle the antifeminist threads companioning the scientific response to climate change: the linked rhetorics of population control, erotophobia and ecophobia, anti-immigration sentiment, and increased militarism. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2015

The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers

Citation:

Musinguzi, Laban, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, and Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo. 2018. “The Role of Gender in Improving Adaptation to Climate Change among Small-Scale Fishers.” Climate and Development 10 (6): 566-76.

Authors: Laban Musinguzi, Vianny Natugonza, Jackson Efitre, Richard Ogutu-Ohwayo

Abstract:

Climate change disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially women. To guide the integration of gender roles in interventions to improve adaptation, we examined gender roles among fishers on Lake Wamala, Uganda, which has been increasingly affected by climate change. We found lower participation of women than men in preharvest and postharvest fishing activities, with 99% of fishers and 92.9% of fish processors and traders combined being men. The men had more fishing experience, started fishing at a younger age and exited at a later age, targeted more species, used more fishing gears and bought more fish for processing and trading. Although we observed diversification to non-fishery livelihoods, such as crop and livestock production to increase food security and income among others, income from these activities was not controlled or shared equally between men and women. Compared to men, women worked longer hours, engaging in more simultaneous activities both in and out of the home and reported less time resting. The income controlled by women was used directly to meet household needs. The implications of these differences for adaptation, what men and women can do best to enhance adaptation and how some adaptation practices and interventions can be implemented to benefit both men and women are discussed.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, small-scale fishers, gender, livelihoods, Uganda

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2018

Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies

Citation:

Molua, Ernest L. 2011. “Farm Income, Gender Differentials and Climate Risk in Cameroon: Typology of Male and Female Adaptation Options across Agroecologies.” Sustainability Science 6: 21-35. 

Author: Ernest L. Molua

Abstract:

This paper explores the response to risk of smallholder agricultural producers in the face of variable and changing climate in Cameroon. The low rainfall distribution in some regions of the country and the high inter-seasonal variability of rainfall makes crop production, on which the livelihood of rural inhabitants is based, a risky enterprise. Women farmers in Cameroon are an important group for whom risk aversion influences production outcomes and welfare. This study identifies and analyses the effect of climate risks on the productive activities and the management options of male and female farmers. Women-owned farms, on average, record profits of US$ 620 per hectare to about US$ 935 for crop enterprises across the different agroecological zones. Comparatively static results indicate that increases in climate variability and the uncertainty of climate conditions have an explicit impact on farm profit. The impacts of increased uncertainty in climate and risk aversion are ambiguous depending on the agroecology. Ex-ante and ex-post risk management options reveal that female-owned farms in the northern Sahel savannah zone rely on more sophisticated strategies to reduce the impact of shocks. While adapting to uncertain climate positively influences profit levels, risk measured as the variance of rainfall or temperature per unit variation in profit is significant. This analysis stresses the increased importance of climate risk management as a prelude to the panoply of adaptation choice in response to expected climatic change. 

Keywords: Cameroon, agriculture, female-owned farm, climate, uncertainty, risk aversion

Topics: Agriculture, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2011

Climate Change through a Gendered Lens: Examining Livestock Holder Food Security

Citation:

McKune, Sarah L., Erica C. Borresen, Alyson G. Young, Thérèse D Auria Ryley, Sandra L. Russo, Astou Diao Camara, Meghan Coleman, and Elizabeth P. Ryan. 2015. “Climate Change through a Gendered Lens: Examining Livestock Holder Food Security.” Global Food Security 6: 1-8.

Authors: Sarah L. McKune, Erica C. Borresen, Alyson G. Young, Thérèse D Auria Ryley, Sandra L. Russo, Astou Diao Camara, Meghan Coleman, Elizabeth P. Ryan

Abstract:

Livestock holders experience increased food insecurity because of climate change. We argue that development programs, public health specialists, and practitioners must critically examine gendered impacts of climate change to improve food security of livestock producers. This review illustrates the differential experiences of men and women and how vulnerability, adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climatic stimuli are gendered in distinct ways between and among livestock holding communities. We propose a gendered conceptual framework for understanding the impact of climate change on food security among livestock holders, which highlights potential pathways of vulnerability and points of intervention to consider in global health strategies for improving household food security.

Keywords: food security, climate change, livestock, gender, vulnerability

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Health, Households, Security, Food Security

Year: 2015

Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens

Citation:

Gaard, Greta. 1998. Ecological Politics: Ecofeminists and the Greens. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Author: Greta Gaard

Annotation:

Summary:
Beginning with the ecofeminists, this title describes the paths environmental causes, the feminist peace movement, the feminist spirituality movement, the animal liberation movement, and the anti-toxics movement, as well as experiences of interconnectedness that have led women (and a few men) to articulate an ecofeminist perspective. (Summary from WorldCat) 
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction
 
1. Ecofeminist Roots
 
2. The U.S. Greens: From Movement to Party
 
3. The U.S. Greens as a Social Movement
 
4. Ecofeminists in the Greens
 
5. Divisions among the Greens
 
6. Democracy, Ecofeminism, and the Nader Presidential Campaign 
 
Conclusion 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, Governance, Political Participation

Year: 1998

Fertile Ground : Women, Earth, and the Limits of Control

Citation:

Diamond, Irene. 1994. Fertile Ground : Women, Earth, and the Limits of Control. Boston: Beacon Press

Author: Irene Diamond

Annotation:

Table of Contents: 
1. Feminism, Fertility, and the Living Earth
2. Bodies, Sex, and Feminist Politics: Echoes of Anger and Celebration
3. Sex Without Consequences: From Sexual Freedom to the Sexuated Body
4. Children Without Turmoil: From Sex Without Reproduction to Reproduction Without Sex
5. Food Without Sweat: From Abundance for All to the Poisoning of the Planet
6. Our Bodies, Our Earth: The Politics of Renewal, Restructuring, and Re-Evolution
Afterword: Coming to Rest

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Rights, Reproductive Rights

Year: 1994

Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn, ed. 2017. Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment. New York: Routledge.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Annotation:

Summary:
The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Environment gathers together state-of-the-art theoretical reflections and empirical research from leading researchers and practitioners working in this transdisciplinary and transnational academic field. Over the course of the book, these contributors provide critical analyses of the gender dimensions of a wide range of timely and challenging topics, from sustainable development and climate change politics, to queer ecology and interspecies ethics in the so-called Anthropocene.
 
Presenting a comprehensive overview of the development of the field from early political critiques of the male domination of women and nature in the 1980s to the sophisticated intersectional and inclusive analyses of the present, the volume is divided into four parts:
 
Part I: Foundations
Part II: Approaches
Part III: Politics, Policy and Practice
Part IV: Futures
 
Comprising chapters written by forty contributors with different perspectives and working in a wide range of research contexts around the world, this Handbook will serve as a vital resource for scholars, students, and practitioners in environmental studies, gender studies, human geography, and the environmental humanities and social sciences more broadly. (Summary from Routledge)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Rachel Carson Was Right – Then and Now 
Joni Seager
 
2. The Death of Nature: Foundations of Ecofeminist Thought 
Charis Thompson and Sherilyn MacGregor
 
3. The Dilemma of Dualism 
Freya Mathews
 
4. Gender and Environment From ‘Women, Environment and Development’ to Feminist Political Ecology
Bernadette P. Resurrección
 
5. Ecofeminist Political Economy: A Green and Feminist Agenda
Mary Mellor
 
6. Naturecultures and Feminist Materialism
Helen Merrick
 
7. Posthumanism, Ecofeminism, and Inter-species Relations
Greta Gaard
 
8. Gender, Livelihoods, and Sustainability: Anthropological Research
Maria Cruz-Torres and Pamela McElwee
 
9. Gender’s Critical Edge: Feminist Political Ecology, Postcolonial Intersectionality, and the Coupling of Race and Gender
Sharlene Mollett
 
10. Gender and Environmental Justice
Julie Sze
 
11. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern: Sociological Explanations
Chenyang Xiao and Aaron M. McCright
 
12. Social Ecology: A Transdisciplinary Approach to Gender and Environment Research
Diana Hummel and Immanuel Stieß
 
13. Gender and Environmental (In)security: From Climate Conflict to Ecosystem Instability
Nicole Detraz
 
14. Gender, Environmental Governmentality, and the Discourses of Sustainable Development
Emma A. Foster
 
15. Feminism and Biopolitics: A Cyborg Account
Catriona Sandilands
 
16. Exploring Industrial, Eco-Modern, and Ecological Masculinities
Martin Hultman
 
17. Transgender Environments
Nicole Seymour
 
18. A Fruitless Endeavour: Confronting the Heteronormativity of Environmentalism
Cameron Butler
 
19. Gender and Environmental Policy
Seema Arora-Jonsson
 
20. Gender Politics in Green Parties
Stewart Jackson
 
21. Good Green Jobs for Whom? A Feminist Critique of the Green Economy
Beate Littig
 
22. Gender Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption
Ines Weller
 
23. Sexual Stewardship: Environment, Development, and the Gendered Politics of Population
Jade Sasser
 
24. Gender Equality, Sustainable Agricultural Development, and Food Security
Agnes A. Babugura
 
25. Whose Debt for Whose Nature? Gender and Nature in Neoliberalism’s War Against Subsistence
Ana Isla
 
26. Gender and Climate Change Politics
Susan Buckingham
 
27. Changing the Climate of Participation: The Gender Constituency in the Global Climate Change Regime
Karren Morrow
 
28. Planning for Climate Change: REDD+SES as Gender-Responsive Environmental Action
Marcela Tovar-Restrepo
 
29. Pragmatic Utopias: Intentional Gender-Democratic and Sustainable Communities
Helen Jarvis
 
30. Feminist Futures and ‘Other Worlds’: Ecologies of Critical Spatial Practice
Meike Schalk, Ulrika Gunnarsson-Östing and Karin Bradley
 
31. Orca Intimacies and Environmental Slow Death: Earthling Ethics for a Claustrophobic World 
Margret Grebowicz
 
32. The End of Gender or Deep Green Trans-Misogyny?
Laura Houlberg
 
33. Welcome to the White (m)Anthropocene? A Feminist-Environmentalist Critique
Giovanna Di Chiro

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Feminist Political Ecology, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Intersectionality, Livelihoods, Political Economies

Year: 2017

Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy, and Ingrid L. Nelson, eds. 2015. Practising Feminist Political Ecologies: Moving Beyond the 'Green Economy'. London: Zed Books.

Authors: Wendy Harcourt, Ingrid L. Nelson

Annotation:

Summary:
Practicing Feminist Political Ecologies explores the latest thinking on feminist political ecology. Included is a collective critique of the “green economy,” an analysis of the post-Rio+20 UN conference debates, and a nuanced study of the impact that the current ecological and economic crisis will have on a diverse range of women and their communities. By including such well-known contributors as Dianne Rocheleau, Catherine Walsh, and Christa Wichterich, along with an upcoming generation of new activist scholars, it fills the gap in the literature on the relationship between the environment and gender.
 
This timely and important book launches the Zed Books’ Gender, Development and Environment series and puts feminist political ecology securely on the map, making it an important new contribution to environmental studies. (Summary from The University of Chicago Press)
 
Table of Contents:
Introduction: Are We ‘Green’ Yet? and the Violence of Asking Such a Question
Wendy Harcourt and Ingrid L. Nelson
 
1. A Situated View of Feminist Political Ecology from my Networks, Roots and Territories
Dianne Rocheleau
 
2. Contesting Green Growth, Connecting Care, Commons and Enough
Christa Wichterich
 
3. Life, Nature and Gender Otherwise: Feminist Reflections and Provocations from the Andes
Catherine Walsh
 
4. Feminist Political Ecology and the (Un)making of ‘Heroes’: Encounters in Mozambique
Ingrid L. Nelson
 
5. Hegemonic Waters and Rethinking Natures Otherwise
Leila M. Harris
 
6. Challenging the Romance with Resilience: Communities, Scale and Climate Change
Andrea J. Nightingale
 
7. A New Spelling of Sustainability: Engaging Feminist-Environmental Justice Theory and Practice
Giovanna Di Chiro
 
8. The Slips and Slides of Trying to Live Feminist Political Ecology
Wendy Harcourt
 
9. Knowledge About, Knowledge With: Dilemmas of Researching Lives, Nature and Genders Otherwise
Larissa Barbosa da Costa, Rosalba Icaza and Angélica María Ocampo Talero
 
10. World-Wise Otherwise Stories for our Endtimes: Conversations on Queer Ecologies
Wendy Harcourt, Sacha Knox and Tara Tabassi

Topics: Development, Economies, Care Economies, Ecological Economics, Feminist Economics, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Justice, Political Economies

Year: 2015

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