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Citizenship

Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda

Citation:

Naiga, Resty, Marianne Penker, and Karl Hogl. 2017. “Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda.” Society & Natural Resources 30 (4): 506–20. doi:10.1080/08941920.2016.1274460.

Authors: Resty Naiga, Marianne Penker, Karl Hogl

Abstract:

Operation and maintenance of communally owned water sources in Uganda still pose challenges despite the devolution of water management from the state to user communities. Using a mixed-methods approach and a gender-sensitive collective action analytical framework, this article quantifies the role of women in drinking-water governance and identifies barriers to women’s participation. The findings show that women not only are more willing to contribute but have also stated higher actual contribution than their male counterparts. The article outlines the institutional and individual attributes constraining women’s effective participation in water management and suggests how to enhance women’s participation in water governance. We argue that a strategy built on water users’ collective action in Uganda has to be built on women’s participation through effective rules and monitoring mechanisms, as well as on long-term sensitization and awareness creation on gender stereotypes that hitherto hinder women’s participation.

Keywords: collective action, demand-driven approach, drinking water, gender relations, local water governance, operation and maintenance, rural Uganda, willingness to contribute, women

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2017

Religious Power, the State, Women's Rights, and Family Law

Citation:

Htun, Mala, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2015. “Religious Power, the State, Women’s Rights, and Family Law.” Politics & Gender 11 (03): 451–77. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000239.

Authors: Mala Htun, S. Laurel Weldon

Abstract:

Family law is an essential dimension of women's citizenship in the modern state. The rights established in family law shape women's agency and autonomy; they also regulate access to basic resources—such as land, income, and education—that determine a citizen's ability to earn a living independently, among other life chances (Agarwal 1994; Deere and León 2001; Kabeer 1994; Okin 1989; World Bank 2012). Yet family law is a notorious site of sex inequality, historically and in the present. Equal rights enjoyed by women in national constitutions are often contradicted by family and civil codes that subordinate women to the decisions of their husbands and fathers. In the early 21st century, family law in a significant number of countries discriminated against women, denying them the rights held by men and contributing to their disadvantaged social positions.

Topics: Citizenship, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Constitutions, Religion, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

A Gendered Analysis of Violence, Justice and Citizenship: Kurdish Women Facing War and Displacement in Turkey

Citation:

Gökalp, Deniz. 2010. “A Gendered Analysis of Violence, Justice and Citizenship: Kurdish Women Facing War and Displacement in Turkey.” Women’s Studies International Forum 33 (6): 561–69. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2010.09.005.

Author: Deniz Gökalp

Abstract:

This article examines the impact of armed conflict on Kurdish women in southeastern Turkey. I conceptualize women's agency in relation to their political consciousness and capability to seek justice in legal, political, socio-economic, and cultural terms. I argue that Kurdish women's agency stems from several phenomena: their experiences with the war, displacement, and the city; their politicization as a result of their peculiar relationship with the Turkish state, based on mutual suspicion and fear; and their propinquity with the Kurdish ethno-nationalist political organization through ethnic propaganda and mobilization. I further point out the complications involved in women's resocialization and politicization in ethnicized terms, questioning the possibility for turning an ethnically-assertive and exclusive form of women's agency into an emancipatory, inclusive, democratic force.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Violence Regions: Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Turkey

Year: 2010

'It Was Better During the War': Narratives of Everyday Violence in a Palestinian Refugee Camp

Citation:

Latif, Nadia. 2012. “‘it Was Better during the War’: Narratives of Everyday Violence in a Palestinian Refugee Camp.” Feminist Review 101 (1): 24–40. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.55.

Author: Nadia Latif

Abstract:

The distinction between what is commonly regarded as the routine of impoverishment and what is acknowledged and remarked upon as violence is increasingly being questioned in scholarship and public policy circles. Interrogating the distinction between routine and remarkable not only reveals the habits and relationships constituting everyday life as the site of violence, but also foregrounds questions of gender. Given that the everyday is shaped by a given community's norms regarding the gendered division of labour that produces and reproduces the conditions of the everyday, in what ways is violence as well as its experience gendered? This article examines this question in the particular context of Palestinian camp refugees’ lived experience of forced displacement in Lebanon. It explores the ways in which the violence used against Palestinian camp refugees draws on norms regarding masculinity and femininity shared by the refugees as well as their Lebanese oppressors. It also examines the ways in which Palestinian camp refugees’ everyday experience of impoverishment as well as the acknowledged violence of forced displacement, subjection to Lebanese military intelligence control, and participation in the armed struggle for national liberation are constituted by and constitutive of unequal subject positions of gender, class and citizenship.

Keywords: Palestinian refugees, Palestinian refugee camps, gender, violence, Lebanese civil war, the everyday

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Citizenship, Class, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2012

After the Truth Commission: Gender and Citizenship in Timor-Leste

Citation:

Kent, Lia. 2016. “After the Truth Commission: Gender and Citizenship in Timor-Leste.” Human Rights Review 17 (1): 51–70. 

Author: Lia Kent

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between truth commissions and gendered citizenship through a case study of Timor-Leste. It examines how, 10 years after the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation (CAVR) has completed its work, women's citizenship remains constrained by, and negotiated within, deeply gendered narratives of nation-building that are informed by historical experiences of the resistance struggle. The power of these narratives--which foreground heroism rather than victimisation--underscores the need to situate truth commissions as part of an ongoing politics of memory. Despite the power of political elites to shape this politics, the continued marginalisation of sections of society within official narratives is also providing an impetus for alternative truth-telling efforts that seek to broaden public perspectives on the past. By promoting new narratives of women's experiences of the conflict, these projects might be understood as attempts to negotiate and transform gendered conceptions of citizenship in the present and for the future.

Keywords: truth commissions, memory, politics, gender, citizenship, Timor-Leste

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Justice, Transitional Justice, Political Participation Regions: Oceania Countries: Timor-Leste

Year: 2015

Gendered Nationalism and Palestinian Citizenship: Reconceptualizing the Role of Women in State Building

Citation:

Jacoby, Tami Amanda. 1996. “Gendered Nationalism and Palestinian Citizenship: Reconceptualizing the Role of Women in State Building.” YCISS Working Paper No. 18.

Author: Tami Amanda Jacoby

Topics: Armed Conflict, Citizenship, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1996

Predicaments of Mursi (Mun) Women in Ethiopia's Changing World

Citation:

LaTosky, Shauna, Thomas Bierschenk, Anna-Maria Brandstetter, Raimund Kastenholz, Matthias Krings, and Carola Lentz. 2013. Predicaments of Mursi (Mun) Women in Ethiopia’s Changing World. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

Authors: Shauna LaTosky, Thomas Bierschenk, Anna-Maria Brandstetter, Raimund Kastenholz, Matthias Krings, Carola Lentz

Abstract:

Currently, 'fast track' modern development schemes are being implemented in southwestern Ethiopia, with enormous impact on the lives of local indigenous peoples. In this book, LaTosky looks at the predicaments of modern life in Mursiland, and reveals how Mursi (Mun) women experience and interpret the changes that are affecting their everyday lives. Based on ethnographic research conducted in northern Mursiland between 2004 and 2009, the author examines how Mursi women rhetorically express their conceptions of the past, present and future, and how they negotiate what it means to live well in a changing world. Drawing on the personal narratives of three generations of Mursi women, and analysing these stories within a framework of rhetoric culture theory and feminist rhetoric theory, LaTosky reveals the ambiguities, tensions and social contradictions that arise when an agro-pastoralist community is confronted by modern change. The book also considers how Mursi women's experiences of being Mursi are shaped by their notions of gender, which in turn are shaped by rhetoric, and provides a critique of the universal enforcement of gender equality in the light of Mursi ideals of well-being. (Abstract from Amazon)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I. "The Challenge: Unequal Citizenship"

1. "Comparative Perspectives on Citizen-Creation in Africa"

2. "The Historical Context for Modern Ethiopian Citizenship"

Part II. "The Response: The State and Its Citizens"

3. "Popular Responses to Unequal Citizenship

4. "A Referendum on Ethnic Identity and the Claims of Citizenship

5. "No Going Back on Self-Determination for the Oromo"

6. "Ethiopian Women and Citizenship Rights Deferred"

 

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Governance Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year: 2013

Making Citizens in Africa: Ethnicity, Gender, and National Identity in Ethiopia

Citation:

Smith, Lahra. 2013. Making Citizens in Africa: Ethnicity, Gender, and National Identity in Ethiopia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Lahra Smith

Annotation:

"Making Citizens in Africa argues that citizenship creation and expansion is a pivotal part of political contestation in Africa today. Citizenship is a powerful analytical tool with which to approach political life in contemporary Africa because the institutional and structural reforms of the past two decades have been inextricably linked with the battle over the 'right to have rights.' Professor Lahra Smith's work advances the notion of meaningful citizenship, which refers to the way in which rights are exercised, or the effective practice of citizenship. Using data from Ethiopia and developing a historically informed and empirically nuanced study of language policy and ethnicity and gender identities, this book analyzes the contestation over citizenship that engages the state, social movements, and individuals in substantive ways. By combining original data on language policy in contemporary Ethiopia with detailed historical study and an analytical focus on ethnicity, citizenship, and gender, this work not only brings a fresh approach to Ethiopian political development but also to contemporary citizenship concerns relevant to other parts of Africa" (Summary from Cambridge University Press).

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Ethiopia

Year:

Strengthening Women’s Citizenship in the Context of State-Building: The Experience of Sierra Leone

Citation:

Castillejo, Clare. (2008) “Strengthening Women’s Citizenship in the Context of State-Building: The Experience of Sierra Leone”. Madrid, FRIDE working paper 69

Author: Clare Castillejo

Annotation:

"There is currently great interest in citizenship within development discourse and practice. The development community has come to see citizenship both as a key element of democracy and accountability, and as an important framework to understand “the extent to which poor people are able to participate in the decision-making structures which shape events and outcomes in their own lives”. Feminist scholars have made the case that citizenship is also a useful framework to understand and support women’s struggles for equality, as it reveals how women can influence the institutions, policies and structures that shape their lives. While there are many different definitions of citizenship, one that is perhaps most useful in the context of development and gender equality is that citizenship is made up of access to rights and participation in governance. This is the definition used in this paper. Following the end of the devastating internal conflict there is now a process of state-building underway in Sierra Leone. Within this process new institutions are being created and old ones reformed, and the boundaries of authority between the formal state and customary authorities are being redrawn. This process has profound implications for women’s rights and participation in relation to the formal state, to customary authorities and to their communities, and has the potential to significantly reshape women’s experience of citizenship. This paper explores how state-building processes in Sierra Leone can offer opportunities to strengthen women’s citizenship and influence over the decision-making structures which affect their lives. It will look at the forms of citizenship currently available to women in Sierra Leone, the challenges women face in claiming their rights and participating in governance, and the changes that are being brought about by the strengthening of the formal state. It will also make recommendations for how women’s citizenship can be placed more centrally within the statebuilding process" (Castillejo, 2008, 1).

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Refugee Women: Beyond Gender versus Culture

Citation:

Bassel, Leah. 2012. Refugee Women: Beyond Gender versus Culture. London: Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Refugee-Women-Beyond-Gender-versus-Culture/Bassel/p/book/9780415603607.

Author: Leah Bassel

Abstract:

Debates over the headscarf and niqab, so-called ‘sharia-tribunals’, Female Genital Operations and forced marriages have raged in Europe and North America in recent years, raising the question – does accommodating Islam violate women’s rights? The book takes issue with the terms of this debate. It contrasts debates in France over the headscarf and in Canada over religious arbitration with the lived experience of a specific group of Muslim women: Somali refugee women. The challenges these women eloquently describe first-hand demonstrate that the fray over accommodating culture and religion neglects other needs and engenders a democratic deficit.
 
In Refugee Women: Beyond Gender versus Culture, new theoretical perspectives recast both the story told and who tells the tale. By focusing on the politics underlying how these debates are framed and the experiences of women at the heart of these controversies, women are considered first and foremost as democratic agents rather than actors in the ‘culture versus gender’ script. Crucially, the institutions and processes created to address women’s needs are critically assessed from this perspective.
 
Breaking from scholarship that focuses on whether the accommodation of culture and religion harms women, Bassel argues that this debate ignores the realities of the women at its heart. In these debates, Muslim women are constructed as silent victims. Bassel pleads compellingly for a consideration of women in all their complexity, as active participants in democratic life. The book will appeal to students and scholars throughout the social sciences, particularly of sociology, political science and women’s studies.
(Routledge)

Topics: Citizenship, Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Political Participation, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, North America, Europe

Year: 2012

Pages

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