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Boys

Outcomes and Moderators of a Preventive School-Based Mental Health Intervention for Children Affected by War in Sri Lanka: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Citation:

Tol, Wietse A., Ivan H. Komproe, Mark J.d. Jordans, Anavarathan Vallipuram, Heather Sipsma, Sambasivamoorthy Sivayokan, Robert D. Macy, and Joop T. De Jong. 2012. “Outcomes and Moderators of a Preventive School-Based Mental Health Intervention for Children Affected by War in Sri Lanka: A Cluster Randomized Trial.” World Psychiatry 11 (2): 114–22. doi:10.1016/j.wpsyc.2012.05.008.

Authors: Wietse A. Tol, Ivan H. Komproe, Mark J.d. Jordans, Anavarathan Vallipuram, Heather Sipsma, Sambasivamoorthy Sivayokan, Robert D. Macy, Joop T. De Jong

Abstract:

We aimed to examine outcomes, moderators and mediators of a preventive school-based mental health intervention implemented by paraprofessionals in a war-affected setting in northern Sri Lanka. A cluster randomized trial was employed. Subsequent to screening 1,370 children in randomly selected schools, 399 children were assigned to an intervention (n=199) or waitlist control condition (n=200). The intervention consisted of 15 manualized sessions over 5 weeks of cognitive behavioral techniques and creative expressive elements. As- sessments took place before, 1 week after, and 3 months after the intervention. Primary outcomes included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and anxiety symptoms. No main effects on primary outcomes were identified. A main effect in favor of intervention for conduct problems was observed. This effect was stronger for younger children. Furthermore, we found intervention benefits for spe- cific subgroups. Stronger effects were found for boys with regard to PTSD and anxiety symptoms, and for younger children on pro-social behavior. Moreover, we found stronger intervention effects on PTSD, anxiety, and function impairment for children experiencing lower levels of current war-related stressors. Girls in the intervention condition showed smaller reductions on PTSD symptoms than waitlisted girls. We conclude that preventive school-based psychosocial interventions in volatile areas characterized by ongoing war-related stress- ors may effectively improve indicators of psychological wellbeing and posttraumatic stress-related symptoms in some children. However, they may undermine natural recovery for others. Further research is necessary to examine how gender, age and current war-related expe- riences contribute to differential intervention effects.

Keywords: armed conflict, political violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, school-based intervention, prevention, Sri Lanka

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2012

Interdependent Preferences, Militarism, and Child Gender

Citation:

Urbatsch, R. “Interdependent Preferences, Militarism, and Child Gender.” International Studies Quarterly 53, no. 1 (March 1, 2009): 1–21. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2478.2008.01521.x.

Author: R. Urbatsch

Abstract:

Selection effects make it difficult to determine whether concern for other people genuinely affects individuals’ policy preferences. Child gender provides a conveniently exogenous means of exploring the issue, especially in contexts such as military policy where girls and boys face different risks; in many countries male children are disproportionately likely to become soldiers and thus bear the costs of militarism. This creates divergent effects: those in households with girls generally prefer more hawkish foreign policies than do members of households with boys. Data from the 2004 American National Election Study confirm these intuitions, both in general statements of policy preference and in evaluating the net costs of the Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Balance, Elections, Households Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2009

Tracing Shadows: How Gendered Power Relations Shape the Impacts of Maternal Death on Living Children in Sub Saharan Africa

Citation:

Yamin, Alicia Ely, Junior Bazile, Lucia Knight, Mitike Molla, Emily Maistrellis, and Jennifer Leaning. 2015. “Tracing Shadows: How Gendered Power Relations Shape the Impacts of Maternal Death on Living Children in Sub Saharan Africa.” Social Science & Medicine 135 (June): 143–50. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.04.033.

Authors: Alicia Ely Yamin, Junior Bazile, Lucia Knight, Emily Maistrellis, Jennifer Leaning

Abstract:

Driven by the need to better understand the full and intergenerational toll of maternal mortality (MM), a mixed-methods study was conducted in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the impacts of maternal death on families and children. The present analysis identifies gender as a fundamental driver not only of maternal, but also child health, through manifestations of gender inequity in household decision making, labor and caregiving, and social norms dictating the status of women. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members, and in depth qualitative interviews with key-informants and stakeholders, in Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, and South Africa between April 2012 and October 2013. Findings highlight that socially constructed gender roles, which define mothers as caregivers and fathers as wage earners, and which limit women's agency regarding childcare decisions, among other things, create considerable gaps when it comes to meeting child nutrition, education, and health care needs following a maternal death. Additionally, our findings show that maternal deaths have differential effects on boy and girl children, and exacerbate specific risks for girl children, including early marriage, early pregnancy, and school drop-out. To combat both MM, and to mitigate impacts on children, investment in health services interventions should be complemented by broader interventions regarding social protection, as well as aimed at shifting social norms and opportunity structures regarding gendered divisions of labor and power at household, community, and society levels.

Topics: Age, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania

Year:

The War Experiences and Psychosocial Development of Children in Lebanon

Citation:

Macksoud, Mona S., and J. Lawrence Aber. 1996. “The War Experiences and Psychosocial Development of Children in Lebanon.” Child Development 67 (1): 70–88.

Authors: Mona S. Macksoud, J. Lawrence Aber

Abstract:

This study examines the number and types of war traumas children face growing up in a war-torn country and the relation of such traumatic experiences to their psychosocial development. A sample of 224 Lebanese children (10-16 years old) were interviewed using measures of war exposure, mental health symptoms, adaptational outcomes, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The number and type of children's war traumas varied meaningfully in number and type by their age, gender, father's occupational status, and mother's educational level. As predicted, the number of war traumas experienced by a child was positively related to PTSD symptoms; and various types of war traumas were differentially related to PTSD, mental health symptoms, and adaptational outcomes. For example, children who were exposed to multiple war traumas, were bereaved, became victims of violent acts, witnessed violent acts, and/or were exposed to shelling or combat exhibited more PTSD symptoms. Children who were separated from parents reported more depressive symptoms and children who experience bereavement and were not displaced reported more planful behavior. Lastly, children who were separated from parents and who witnessed violent acts reported more prosocial behavior. Implications for program interventions and directions for future research on the effects of war on the psychosocial development of children are explored.

Topics: Age, Armed Conflict, Girls, Boys, Health, PTSD, Trauma, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 1996

2009 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development

Citation:

Kabeer, Naila. 2009. ‘Women’s Control over Economic Resources and Access to Financial Resources, Including Microfinance: 2009 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development’. United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women.  

Author: Naila Kabeer

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Infrastructure, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Security

Year: 2009

How the Crisis is Altering Women’s Roles in Syria

Citation:

Haddad, Zerene. 2014. “How the Crisis Is Altering Women’s Roles in Syria.” Forced Migration Review, no. 47: 46-7.

Author: Zerene Haddad

Keywords: protracted displacement, refugees, Syria crisis, IDPs, forced migration, women's roles, Syria, FMR

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Syria

Year: 2014

¿Por Qué Se Vinculan Las Niñas a Los Grupos Guerrilleros Y Paramilitares En Colombia?

Citation:

Moreno Martín, Florentino, Jaime Alberto Carmona Parra, and Felipe Tobón Hoyos. 2010. “¿Por Qué Se Vinculan Las Niñas a Los Grupos Guerrilleros Y Paramilitares En Colombia?” Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología 42 (3): 453–67.

Authors: Florentino Moreno Martín, Jaime Alberto Carmona Parra, Felipe Tobón Hoyos

Abstract:

SPANISH ABSTRACT:

Este trabajo realiza una comparación entre las explicaciones que los investigadores del fenómeno de los niños soldado en Colombia dan de los motivos por los cuales los menores ingresaron a los grupos armados ilegales, con los testimonios de las 21 niñas desmovilizadas en Antioquia durante 2004. Se hizo un análisis de contenido de las investigaciones empíricas y de las sucesivas entrevistas en profundidad en las que participaron las niñas. Existe coincidencia entre niñas e investigadores en la relativa importancia atribuida al maltrato familiar y a la casi nula motivación ideológica, pero se dan diferencias significativas en el mayor peso atribuido por los investigadores a determinismos objetivos como la pobreza, y en la gran importancia atribuida por las menores a elementos lúdicos como el afán de aventura, la diversión y los criterios estéticos.
 
 ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
 
This study seeks to compare the explanations that the researchers of the phenomenon of child soldiers in Colombia give about the motives for which the minors entered the illegal armed groups with the testimonies of 21 demobilized young girls in Antioquia during 2004. An analysis of content was performed of the empiric research and the successive in-depth interviews in which these girls participated. Testimonies between the girls and researchers coincide in the relative importance attributed to family abuse and the almost null ideological motivation, but there are significant differences with respect to the greater weight attributed by the researchers to poverty, and at the same time the desire of minors to have access to leisure activities like the rush for adventure, entertainment, and aesthetic criteria. 

Keywords: infancia, guerrilla, guerra, paramilitarismo, motivación, children, war, guerrilla war, paramilitary, motivation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2010

Mujeres e Insurrección en Colombia: Reconfiguración de la Identidad Femenina en la Guerrilla

Citation:

Ibarra Melo, María Eugenia. 2009. “Mujeres e Insurrección en Colombia: Reconfiguración de la Identidad Femenina en la Guerrilla.” Santiago de Cali, Colombia: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Author: María Eugenia Ibarra Melo

Annotation:

Contenido:

Capítulo I: Identidad de género y participación política en conflictos armados

1. El concepto de identidad

2. La guerra y la violencia desde su perspectiva de género

3. Las mujeres en el ciclo de paz y guerra: un análisis desde la perspectiva de género

4. La lucha armada como opción política

Capítulo II: La experiencia de las mujeres en las guerrillas colombianas

1. El contexto sociopolítico de la incorporación

2. La participación de las mujeres en los “proyectos revolucionarios”

3. Cuando ellas deciden la opción armada: tipología de la vinculación de mujeres a las guerrillas

Capítulo III: Las vicisitudes de la militancia femenina en la guerrilla

1. La entrada en escena de las mujeres en el movimiento insurgente

2. La exclusión de las mujeres en los niveles superiores de la estructura jerárquica

3. El proceso de identificación personal y colectiva en la guerra

4. El balance de la militancia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2009

La Carrera de las Niñas en los Grupos Guerrilleros y Paramilitares en Colombia: un Estudio desde el Punto de Vista del Agente

Citation:

Carmona Parra, Jaime Alberto, Florentino Moreno Martín, and Felipe Tobón Hoyos. 2011. “La Carrera de las Niñas en los Grupos Guerrilleros y Paramilitares en Colombia: un Estudio desde el Punto de Vista del Agente.” Doctoral thesis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Authors: Jaime Alberto Carmona Parra, Florentino Moreno Martín, Felipe Tobón Hoyos

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Civil Society, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Gender, Girls, Boys, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state Armed Groups, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2011

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