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Southeast Asia

These Days We Have to Be Poor People: Women’s Narratives of the Economic Aftermath of Forced Evictions in Phnom Penh, Cambodia


McGinn, Colleen. 2015. “These Days We Have to Be Poor People: Women’s Narratives of the Economic Aftermath of Forced Evictions in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.” Paper presented at Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian-Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and South-East Asia Conference. Chiang Mai University, June. 

Author: Colleen McGinn


“This paper explores the economic aftermath of forced evictions for urban Cambodian women. It is based on an analysis of in-depth narratives of 22 women displaced from five locations in Phnom Penh, the capital city. Evictees’ overall post-eviction coping and adaptation proved to be grounded in their economic circumstances, which in turn framed other risk and resilience factors. The nature and degree of economic harm resulting from the evictions varied widely, and followed specific patterns consistent with pre-displacement socioeconomic status, livelihood source, and the degree to which social networks were embedded in their former neighborhoods. Those who worked in the informal sector experienced shocks to their livelihoods, especially those who landed in remote locations. Homeowners were more typically harmed in terms of assets: they might maintain relatively stable incomes, but lose enormous value of their properties. A third group experienced a catastrophic double blow affecting both livelihoods and assets; this group tended to include shopkeepers whose shelter and livelihoods were both tied to their property. There were also some women who reported that forced eviction had had a relatively benign impact on them. These narratives were idiosyncratic. However, several explanatory factors emerged, including these women had intact livelihoods, superficial ties to their former neighborhoods, and/or found new housing nearby. I conclude with recommendations, including compensation at full market value for seized properties, and broad urban planning measures to protect and encourage affordable rental housing within the city, proximate to diverse livelihood opportunities. A housing/shelter focus to advocacy, policy, and assistance strategies is too narrow, because it poorly addresses the livelihood crisis experienced by many of the displaced.” (Abstract from original source

Keywords: gender, land grab, eviction, Cambodia, Southeast Asia, state-gender relations

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2017

Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment


Sparr, Pamela. 1994. Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment. London: Zed Books

Author: Pamela Sparr


This book explores the impact on Third World women of the stringent economic prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. Introductory chapters explain in non-jargonistic terms exactly what structural adjustment is. These are followed by feminist critiques of its implications, and then a series of carefully chosen case studies examining the specific dimensions of structural adjustment in countries as diverse as Jamaica, Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Turkey, Sri Lanka and the Philippines (Summary from WorldCat).
Table of Contents:
1. What is structural adjustment?
Pamela Sparr
2. Feminist critiques of structural adjustment
Pamela Sparr
3. Privatization and the demise of state feminism in Egypt
Mervat F. Hatem
4. Ghana: women in the public and informal sectors under the economic recovery programme
Takyiwaa Manuh
5. What has export-oriented manufacturing meant for Turkish women?
Nilüfer Çagatay, Günseli Berik
6. Structural adjustment policies, industrial development and women in Sri Lanka
Swarna Jayaweera
7. The dynamics of economic change and gender roles: export cropping in the Philippines
Maria Sagrario Floro
8. Nigeria: agricultural exports and compensatory schemes -- rural women's production resources and quality of life
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
9. Hitting where it hurts most: Jamaican women's livelihoods in crisis
Joan French
10. Banking on women: where do we go from here?
Pamela Sparr

Topics: Development, Globalization, Privatization Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Egypt, Jamaica, Nigeria, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey

Year: 1994

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights


Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi


Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy


Bakker, Isabella. 1994. The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy. London, UK; Atlantic Highlands, N.J., USA: Zed Books in association with the North-South Institute/l’Institut Nord-Sud.

Author: Isabella Bakker


Most treatments of economic change harbour a conceptual silence: the refusal to recognise that global restructuring is occurring on a gendered terrain. This book's unique contribution to the literature on restructuring and adjustment lies in its application of feminist scholarship to macroeconomics. The contributors focus on these conceptual silences, examining macroeconomic methods and policies in order to propose new research strategies to deliver a more gender-aware economics (Summary from WorldCat).
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction : engendering macro-economic policy reform in the era of global restructuring and adjustment
Isabella Bakker
2. Conceptual silences and new research strategies. Micro, meso, macro : gender and economic analysis in the context of policy reform
Diane Elson
3. Shifting the boundaries : gender and the politics of restructuring
Janine Brodie
4. Structural adjustment, demographic change and population policies : some preliminary notes
Caren Grown
5. Gender, productivity and macro-economic policies in the context of structural adjustment and change
Marjorie W. Williams
6. Macro-economics, the state and the household : lessons from the north and south. Restructuring in the fishing industry in Atlantic Canada
Martha MacDonald
7. The implications of economic restructuring for women : the Canadian situation
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
8. Gender bias and macro-economic policy : methodological comments from the Indonesian example
Barbara Evers
9. Turkish women and structural adjustment
Nilufer Cagatay
10. Mexican rural women wage earners and macro-economic policies
Antonieta Barrón
11. Women and the state : some considerations of ideological and economic frameworks in engendering policies
Haleh Afshar
12. The impact of structural adjustment policies on women : some general observations relating to conceptual bias
Swapna Mukhopadhyay.

Topics: Development, Economies, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Privatization Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey

Year: 1994

Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas


Witvorapong, Nopphol, Raya Muttarak, and Wiraporn Pothisiri. 2015. “Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas.” PLoS ONE 10 (7): 1–20.

Authors: Nopphol Witvorapong, Raya Muttarak, Wiraporn Pothisiri


This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation.

Topics: Civil Society, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Thailand

Year: 2015

Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts


Archambault, Caroline, and Annelies Zoomers, eds. 2015. Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. London and New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315765822.

Authors: Caroline Archambault, Annelies Zoomers


This book explores the gendered dimensions of recent land governance transformations across the globe in the wake of unprecedented pressures on land and natural resources. These complex contemporary forces are reconfiguring livelihoods and impacting women’s positions, their tenure security and well-being, and that of their families.

Bringing together fourteen empirical community case studies from around the world, the book examines governance transformations of land and land-based resources resulting from four major processes of tenure change: commercial land based investments, the formalization of customary tenure, the privatization of communal lands, and post-conflict resettlement and redistribution reforms. Each contribution carefully analyses the gendered dimensions of these transformations, exploring both the gender impact of the land tenure reforms and the social and political economy within which these reforms materialize. The cases provide important insights for decision makers to better promote and design an effective gender lens into land tenure reforms and natural resource management policies. (Summary from Taylor & Francis eBooks)

Table of Contents:
Part 1: From Farm to Firm: A Bad Deal for Women? 
1. Gender, Land and Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR  
2. Women and Benefit Sharing in Large Scale Land Deals: A Mining Case Study from Papua New Guinea  
3. A Women's World or the Return of Men? The Gendered Impacts of Residential Tourism in Costa Rica  
Part 2: From de Facto to de Jure: Formalizing Patriarchy in the Codification of Customary Tenure?  
4. Cameroon's Community Forests Program and Women's Income Generation from Non-Timber Forest Products: Negative impacts and potential solutions  
5. Gendered Mobilization: Women and the Politics of Indigenous Land Claims in Argentina  
6. Joint Land Titles in Madagascar: The gendered outcome of a "gender neutral" land tenure reform  
7. Land Titling and Women's Decision-Making in West Bengal  
Part 3: From Common Property to Private Holdings: A Tragedy for the Commoners?  
8. "One Doesn't Sell One's Parents:" Gendered Experiences of Shifting Tenure Regimes in the Agricultural Plain of the Sais in Morocco  
9. Aging Ejidos in the Wake of Neo-Liberal Reform: Livelihood Predicaments of Mexican Ejidatarias  
10. Women's Forestland Rights in the Collective Forestland Reforms in China: Fieldword Findings and Policy Recommendations  
11. Gendered Perspectives on Rangeland Privatization among the Maasai of Southern Kenya  
Part 4: From Conflict to Peace: An Opportunity for Gender Reconstruction?  
12. Reproducing Patriarchy on Resettled Lands: A lost opportunity in reconstituting women's land rights in the fast track land reform program in Zimbabwe  
13. Resigning Their Rights? Impediments to women's property ownership in Kosovo  
14. Strengthening Women's Land Rights while Recognizing Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Role of Women as Risk Communicators to Enhance Disaster Resilience of Bandung, Indonesia


Mulyasari, Farah, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. “Role of Women as Risk Communicators to Enhance Disaster Resilience of Bandung, Indonesia.” Natural Hazards 69 (3): 2137–60. 

Authors: Farah Mulyasari, Rajib Shaw


This study addresses the need for women risk communication and highlights the potential role of Women Welfare Associations (WWAs) of Bandung, Indonesia, as risk communicators. A risk communication framework is modeled for women's risk communication process. A set of indicators in social, institutional, and economic resilience activities (SIERAs), with a scope of 45 activities covering three different disaster periods, were developed to characterize the delivery process of risk information by women in WWAs through their activities at sub-district and ward levels. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey method using the risk communication SIERA approach. Women's leaders at wards were surveyed concerning their perceptions on these 45 scopes of SIERA, ongoing activities, and their risk information source and dissemination process. Correlation analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the variables such as periods of disaster, types of activities (social, institutional, economic), and attributing factors (location, population, and education institution) in finding variations in risk communication activity that functions for women and communities. Five risk communication processes of WWAs are identified and implemented that work for women in Bandung. When their perceptions and ongoing activities are compared, activities such as dissemination of disaster risk information, conveying early warnings to their peers, and involvement of the local government have been confirmed to match the risk communication plans and implementation of WWAs. These indicate that WWAs' activities in Bandung implement a certain degree of risk communication that is embedded in their activities. The results confirm that women through their social networks can become active agents of change and thus act beyond their usual domestic roles and responsibilities in order to contribute to the overall enhancement of community resilience.

Keywords: Bandung, disaster risk, risk communication, SIERA, women, Women Welfare Associations, Resilience

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Roles Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2013

Wading Past Assumptions: Gender Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Communities of the Philippines


Kathryn Graziano. 2014. “Wading Past Assumptions: Gender Dimensions of Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Communities of the Philippines.” Master’s thesis, University of Washington.

Author: Kathryn Graziano


Climate change is expected to have a broad range of impacts on social and ecological systems. Common discourse asserts that women in developing countries are more vulnerable to climate change than men, and perpetuates assumptions about the role of women in climate change adaptation (CCA). This study examines the gender dimensions of CCA in fishing villages of the Philippines, a country with exceptionally high marine biodiversity supporting dense coastal populations that are highly vulnerable to climate change. The study seeks to 1) Describe gender mainstreaming in Philippine CCA documents 2) Identify and challenge assumptions about women and climate change, 3) Examine men’s and women’s beliefs, values, perceptions of risks, resource dependency, and awareness associated with climate change and 4) Evaluate the implications of gendered relationships with fisheries and the environment on CCA. Quantitative social surveys were administered randomly to marine resource users in 30 coastal villages within three Philippine provinces (Palawan, Occidental Mindoro, and Batangas). Dependent variables associated with CCA were analyzed relative to gender. In this case, women were less connected to nature, more risk tolerant, and equally inclined to conservation attitudes as men. Women were also equally aware of climate change and more aware of CCA plans, but less likely to participate in outreach activities. The results offer insights that dispel certain generalizations about women and climate change, and present opportunities for improved gender mainstreaming in climate change adaptation.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2014

Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change


Badayos-Jover, Mary Barby P. 2012. “Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change.” PhD diss., College of Agricultural Sciences and College of the Liberal Arts, The Pennsylvania State University.

Author: Mary Barby P. Badayos-Jover


Global climate change has become a pressing environmental, social, political and economic problem in highly vulnerable developing countries like the Philippines. A number of socio-political institutions are thus now involved in climate change initiatives in Philippine locales. While these efforts are underway, there is also a parallel growing concern that institutional responses to climate change will reinforce gender inequalities or undermine the gains made towards gender equality. This apprehension is significant in the Philippines since it has long officially subscribed to gender mainstreaming and is ranked high in gender equity indices.

The study focused on analyzing the extent to which Philippine institutional climate change efforts integrate gender concerns. Data collection made use of feminist approaches and institutional ethnography to reveal the complex ruling relations that influence practices on the ground. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with representatives from international institutions working in the Philippines, national government agencies, local government units, civil society groups and grassroots communities.

Study results highlighted that institutional and community representatives acknowledge gender as a cross cutting issue yet associate it mainly with "women's participation". Gender mainstreaming has largely remained rhetoric in the face of organizational masculinism. Hence, there is minimal integration of gender concerns in Philippine institutional climate change initiatives, despite specific policy pronouncements and years of bureaucratic gender mainstreaming. These results have implications on gender equity within climate change institutional structures and processes. However, the results also provide entry points for developing gender-sensitive, equitable, efficient and effective on-the-ground climate change initiatives in vulnerable Philippine locales.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2012

The Politics of Counting and Reporting Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: the Case of Myanmar


Davies, Sara E., and Jacqui True. 2017. “The Politics of Counting and Reporting Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: the Case of Myanmar.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 19 (1): 4-21.

Authors: Sara E. Davies, Jacqui True


Scholars, states and international organizations have begun to systematically count, document and compare sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in conflict-affected countries. Qualitative and quantitative studies point to a “tip of the iceberg” phenomenon, where there is a high prevalence but low level of actual reporting of SGBV. We investigate the conditions in which SGBV is reported or, more significantly, is not reported to discover the trends of reporting in politically oppressive environments where SGBV is thought to be occurring. We ask how the power to report in local conflict-affected areas is affected by national political tensions and pervasive gender discrimination. Reporting of SGBV in Myanmar, a country that has experienced multiple, protracted conflicts since independence, is examined. Analysis of open-access reports over a fifteen-year period reveals a pattern of silence that we argue is rooted in pervasive discriminatory civil and physical practices against women. Engaging with the deeply politicized and gender discriminatory context of conflict-affected societies enables us to see the anomalies of SGBV data and to highlight significant gaps in our knowledge about SGBV.

Keywords: ethnic conflict, human rights reporting, feminist methodology, Myanmar, Conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Property Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2017


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