Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Southeast Asia

Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines

Citation:

Rivera, Roselle Leah K. 2010. “Gender and Transport: Experiences of Marketplace Workers in Davao City, Philippines.” Environment and Urbanization ASIA 1 (2): 171–86. 

Author: Roselle Leah K. Rivera

Abstract:

What are the strategies which men and women in poor communities utilize to meet their daily mobility needs? This is a key question which captures the emerging policy discussion on transport deprivation in developing countries. As transport deprivation means how people in poor communities, mostly women, experience greatest access problems. The article revisits a neglected dimension of urban poor housing discourse. More often than not, communities are seen as homogenous without recognizing that women and men, from diverse backgrounds, in poor communities have widely varying mobility and accessibility needs. This article initially begins a discussion on the transport experiences, the gendered differences of mobility and travel patterns of the men and women in poor communities, their transport conditions, and the related conditions experienced by poor men and women in three marketplaces. Methods for primary data gathering include (1) a random sample survey of 120 men and women from 3 major marketplaces of the three districts of the city (2) focus group discussions with representatives from four sectors (i.e., transportation leaders, public sector, private sector and NGOs, feminist leaders) and (3) key informant interviews of local and national officials. Secondary data such as official documents of the city were also utilized. While the costs of journey to work vary in the three districts, the time spent traveling for the short distance to work raises time poverty concerns. The article shows that men and women are predominantly pedestrians in a city whose official transport policy and practice is very biased towards high cost projects praised for technological efficiency and management.

Keywords: transport deprivation, mobility, gender and transport, Davao City

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2010

Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations

Citation:

Tanyag, Maria. 2018. “Depleting Fragile Bodies: The Political Economy of Sexual and Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations.” Review of International Studies 44 (4): 654-71. 

Author: Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

In a crisis-prone world, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) uprooted by both armed conflicts and environmental disasters has drastically increased and displacement risks have intensified. Despite the growing attention within global security and development agendas to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), there remain striking gaps in addressing SRHR in crisis situations, particularly among IDP women and girls. This article examines the continuum between social reproduction in times of crisis and the material and ideological conditions that restrict women’s bodily autonomy in everyday life. Using the case of the Philippines where millions of people are routinely affected by conflict and disaster-induced displacements, it argues that the failure to recognise the centrality of women’s health and bodily autonomy not only hinders the sustainable provision of care and domestic labour during and after crisis, but also fundamentally constrains how security is enacted within these spaces. Thus, the article highlights an urgent need to rethink the gendered political economy of crisis responses as a building block for stemming gendered violence and depletion of social reproductive labour at the household, state, and global levels.

Keywords: feminist political economy, social reproduction, depletion, Crisis, global health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2018

Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine

Citation:

Mehta, Akanksha. 2017. "Right-Wing Sisterhood: Everyday Politics of Hindu Nationalist Women in India and Zionist Settler Women in Israel-Palestine." PhD diss., SOAS University of London.

Author: Akanksha Mehta

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Right-Wing movements have gained political momentum in the last few decades, drawing within their ranks women who not only embody their exclusionary and violent politics but who also simultaneously contest everyday patriarchies. This thesis examines the everyday politics of women in two right-wing movements, the cultural nationalist Hindu right-wing project in India and the settler-colonial Zionist project in Israel-Palestine. Based on fourteen months of ethnographic, narrative, and visual ‘fieldwork’ conducted with women in both these movements, I argue that through a politics of the everyday, right-wing women bargain and negotiate with patriarchal communities/homes, male-formulated ideologies and discourses, and maledominated right-wing projects and spaces. These mediations replicate and affirm as well as subvert and challenge patriarchal structures and power hierarchies, troubling the binaries of home/world, private/public, personal/political, and victim/agent. I assert that dominant literature on rightwing women focuses on motherhood and family, ignoring various other crucial subject positions that are constituted and occupied by right-wing women and neglecting the agential and empowering potential of right-wing women’s subjectivities.
 
"I use four themes/lenses to examine the everyday politics of right-wing women. These are: pedagogy and education; charity and humanitarian work; intimacy, friendship, sociability and leisure; and political violence. By interrogating the practices that are contained in and enabled by these four locations of Hindu right-wing and Zionist settler women’s everyday politics, this thesis highlights the multiple narratives, contradictions, pluralities, hierarchies, power structures, languages, and discourses that encompass right-wing women’s projects" (Mehta 2017, 3-4). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Political Participation, Religion, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia Countries: India, Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2017

Women and Land Rights in Cambodia

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, Wang Yunxian, and Govind Kelkar. 1995. "Women and Land Rights in Cambodia." Economic and Political Weekly 30 (43): WS87-92

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Wang Yunxian, Govind Kelkar

Abstract:

After the abandonment of the 'krom samaki' system of collective farming in 1989, both women and men of the People's Republic of Kampuchea secured equal titles to land under the liberalisation process adopted by the government. However, with contradictory and unclear legislation and with no checks and balances, the number of land disputes increased dramatically. This article attempts to understand the effect of this phenomenon on women's social position and on gender relations in Cambodia.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 1995

The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy

Citation:

Faxon, Hilary Oliva. 2015. “The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy.” Paper presented at the Conference on Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian‐Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and Southeast Asia, Chaing Mai University, June 5-6. 

Author: Hilary Olivia Faxon

Abstract:

In Myanmar, heated struggles around land grabs, acquisition, and formalization fail to acknowledge the complexity and heterogeneity of existing land relations. Gender dynamics are key to shaping these systems, and have been neglected in current research and policy. This paper examines women’s access to land and the emergence of gender discourse in land policy debates through a participant ethnography of the National Land Use Policy consultation process. I explore both ways in which land access is lived by rural women, and feminist contributions to land-based social movements. Attention to the differentiated yet interlinked spheres of the household, customary law, and land formalization enhances understanding of land politics, and women’s presence, gender concerns, and the nascent common identity of the pan-Myanmar women can catalyze effective advocacy for just land reform in Myanmar.

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2015

Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach

Citation:

Santillan, Karina R. 2015. “Livelihoods for Women in Mindanao: A Post-Conflict Reconstruction Approach.” Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 21 (1): 15–30.

Author: Karina R. Santillan

Abstract:

The conflict in Mindanao has displaced over two million people in the period 2000 to 2009. As it subsides, the displaced return to their communities and begin the process of reconstruction. This paper studies how women contributed to the post-conflict reconstruction of Mindanao by engaging in livelihood activities. It explores five different livelihood intervention projects implemented in Mindanao between 2000 and 2010. The extent of women's contribution to post-conflict reconstruction is measured by identifying the benefits gained at household and community levels, generated by women's livelihood work. I argue that women's participation in such activities have led to economic, social and political reconstruction of the communities affected by in Mindanao. This paper also compares the women's livelihoods approach with other reconstruction strategies. It also illustrates that interventions for reconstruction therefore must include livelihood programs that encourage women's participation, as exemplified by the experience of Mindanao.

Keywords: Mindanao, women's livelihoods, post-conflict reconstruction, internally displaced persons (IDPs)

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, conflict, Post-conflict Governance, Households, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2015

Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study From Mindanao, Philippines

Citation:

Chandra, Alvin, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, and Dante Dalabajan. 2017. “Gendered Vulnerabilities of Smallholder Farmers to Climate Change in Conflict-Prone Areas: A Case Study from Mindanao, Philippines.” Journal of Rural Studies 50 (February): 45–59.

Authors: Alvin Chandra, Karen E. McNamara, Paul Dargusch, Ana Maria Caspe, Dante Dalabajan

Abstract:

Smallholder farmers in the Philippines are typically considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet, relatively little is known about how that vulnerability differs between men and women farmers, particularly in conflict-prone areas. Using the region of Mindanao in Philippines as a case study, this paper presents an analysis of focus groups (n = 14) and interviews (n = 77) to showcase gendered vulnerabilities of smallholder farmers to climate change. This analysis reveals that both climate change and conflict significantly increase smallholder vulnerability, resulting in loss of livelihoods, financial assets, agricultural yield and the worsening of debt problems. Women and men are affected differently, resulting in changing farming patterns and coping strategies. Women are more disadvantaged and as such tend to farm in smaller plots, work shorter hours or limit farming to cash crops. Extreme climate events in conflict-prone agrarian communities appear to subject women to forced migration, increased discrimination, loss of customary rights to land, resource poverty and food insecurity. The paper concludes by recommending implementing climate-smart agriculture solutions that are both gender and conflict sensitive.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, Mindanao, smallholder, Loss and damage

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, conflict, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

Grounding the International Norm on Women, Peace and Security: The Role of Domestic Norm Entrepreneurs and the Challenges Ahead

Citation:

Veneracion-Rallonza, Lourdes. 2013. “Grounding the International Norm on Women, Peace and Security: The Role of Domestic Norm Entrepreneurs and the Challenges Ahead.” Femina Politica - Zeitschrift für feministische Politikwissenschaft 22 (2): 67–85.

Author: Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza

Annotation:

Summary:
"One of the gaps in the study of international norms is the process by which they are institutionalized and accepted at the national level. As the international norm negotiates its way through various national (and even grassroots) levels, a point of inquiry would be how domestic norm entrepreneurs have enabled its localization. This study looks at the narrative of a loose network of peace and women’s human rights groups that worked together to localize United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on women, peace and security in the Philippines. Specifically, it reviews how the network evolved to become a domestic norm entrepreneur within the context of the creation of the Philippine National Action Plan on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and the initiatives it took to localize the norm in the national arena. Within this frame, this study argues that the network continues to evolve as it responds to current and unfolding realities of peace and women’s human rights in armed conflict situations. Particularly, as domestic norm entrepreneur, the network is trying to transcend the usual top-down strategy of grounding an international norm and is now shifting gears toward the value of bottom-up approaches in order to achieve desired results at the grassroots level" (Veneracion-Rallonza 2013, 67). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, conflict, peace and security, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2013

How Women's Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict

Citation:

Davies, Sara E., Jacqui True, and Maria Tanyag. 2016. “How Women’s Silence Secures the Peace: Analysing Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in a Low-Intensity Conflict.” Gender & Development 24 (3): 459–73.

Authors: Sarah E. Davies, Jacqui True, Maria Tanyag

Abstract:

Most studies of the gendered impact of conflict focus on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) atrocities committed in high-intensity conflict environments. In contrast, this article focuses on the patterns of SGBV in Mindanao, Philippines – an environment of protracted low-intensity conflict within a fragile state. We examine the current Mindanao peace process to highlight the disempowerment of survivors of SGBV, due in large part to the reporting constraints that affect those most likely to be targeted for sexual violence by rival groups, some of whom are closely associated with the peace process. By making visible the significant social, political-economic, and institutional barriers affecting the recognition and reporting of SGBV, we discuss how and why conflict-related SGBV continues in fragile and low-intensity conflict environments.

Keywords: peace process, Mindanao, clan violence, sexual violence, gender

Topics: Clan, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Peace Processes, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2016

Gender Justice: "Gender" in the Bangsamoro Development Plan

Citation:

Jopson, Teresa Lorena. 2017. “Gender Justice: ‘Gender’ in the Bangsamoro Development Plan.” In Enlarging the Scope of Peace Psychology: African and World-Regional Contributions, edited by Mohamed Seedat, Shahnaaz Suffla, and Daniel J. Christie, 221–38. Cham: Springer.

Author: Teresa Lorena Jopson

Abstract:

This chapter is a preliminary inquiry into gender, conflict, and peace in Mindanao, Southern Philippines. I look into the role of gender in the conflict, women’s participation in peace negotiations, and gender equality as a component of peace and development. I suggest that gender inequality, in the form of a gender order, has historically shaped conflict in Mindanao. I review women’s participation in peace negotiations in Southeast Asia through the cases of Aceh, Myanmar, and the Philippines. Finally, using critical frame analysis, I look at how gender has been framed in the Bangsamoro Development Plan, a roadmap for sustainable peace of the proposed Bangsamoro government. I find that the gender order has shaped the roles men and women have taken in Bangsamoro history and that women’s participation does not necessarily translate to having gender on the agenda of peace negotiations. I underscore the relevance of increased women’s participation in peace and development processes and critically framing gender on peace agendas. I maintain that attending to the quality of gender discourse by (re)politicising “gender” to bring back its emancipatory aim is an aspect of a sustainable peace. 

Keywords: Peace Negotiations, gender, development, bangsamoro, Philippines

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, conflict, Gendered Discourses, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2017

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Southeast Asia