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Northern Europe

Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma. 2012. "Gendering War and Peace: Militarized Masculinities in Northern Ireland." Men and Masculinities 15 (3): 1-19. doi:10.1177/1097184X12442636.

Author: Fidelma Ashe

Abstract:

There has been extensive academic analysis of Northern Ireland's ethnonationalist antagonisms. However, academic literature that has explored both the region's ethno-nationalist conflict and its more recent processes of conflict transformation has neglected the concept of masculinities. This article employs the framework of critical studies of men/masculinities to analyze why men's gendered identities have received so little attention in a society that is marked by deep gendered inequalities and also exposes the consequences of this neglect in terms of exploring gendered power relationships in Northern Ireland society. Additionally, the article employs the concept of militarized masculinities to explore the relationships between ethnonationalist conflict, conflict transformation, men's gendered identities, and gender power in the region.

Keywords: demilitarization, masculinities, Northern Ireland, conflict transformation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Ethnicity, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Nationalism Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Forces for Good? Military Masculinities and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Duncanson, Claire. 2013. Forces for Good? Military Masculinities and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Claire Duncanson

Abstract:

"Forces for Good?” explores British soldier 'herographies' to identify constructions of gender, race, class and nation and their consequences on complex, multi-dimensional operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. This book aims to intervene in the debates within critical feminist scholarship over whether soldiers can ever be agents of peace. Many feminist analyses of military intervention point to the way in which interventions are legitimated by gendered narratives where representatives of civilization are tasked with addressing violent conflict in troubled lands, a story which distracts from the root causes of the violence and enables the furthering of a neoliberal agenda. This book advances this critique by adding the important but hitherto neglected case of the British Army, and challenges its determinism, which Duncanson argues to be normatively, empirically and theoretically problematic. Exploring the impact of identity and gender constructions on the prospects for successful peacebuilding, this book will appeal to a range of scholars in politics, international relations, peace studies, gender and women's studies, sociology and anthropology. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Class, Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Peacebuilding, Race Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

Why Examine Men, Masculinities and Religion in Northern Ireland?

Citation:

Brady, Sean. 2013. “Why Examine Men, Masculinities and Religion in Northern Ireland?” In Men, Masculinities and Religious Change in Twentieth-Century Britain, edited by Lucy Delap and Sue Morgan, 218-252. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Sean Brady

Abstract:

Northern Ireland and especially the Troubles of 1968–98 have received considerable scholarly attention in recent decades. But in much of the scholarship, the centrality of religion and religious differences are elided. Also, questions of gender and masculinities barely exist in the historiography of Northern Ireland. Historians that claim to focus on ‘gender’ in reality focus on women and women's studies alone. Questions of masculinity and religion have the potential to offer fresh and incisive analyses of male pecking orders, male-only and male-dominated organisations along religious sectarian lines, and the fostering of competing sectarian hegemonies within the Northern Ireland state from its creation in 1921. The article maps out potentials for masculinities and religion as crucial sites of analysis in the troubled history of the province. (Palgrave Connect)

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Religion Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2013

The McCartney Sisters’ Search for Justice: Gender and Political Protest in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma. 2006. “The McCartney Sisters’ Search for Justice: Gender and Political Protest in Northern Ireland.” Politics 26 (3): 161–67.

Author: Fidelma Ashe

Abstract:

The murder of Robert McCartney in Belfast in January 2005 sparked a campaign by his sisters and partner to bring his murderer(s), allegedly members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army, to justice. The article examines the gender politics of this campaign. It explores how the campaign simultaneously reflected and contested traditional ideas about women’s subjectivities and roles in ethnically divided societies. Furthermore, the article highlights how the ideologies of masculinity and femininity acted as political resources for the campaigners in their struggle with the Irish republican hierarchy.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2006

Sacrifice and Political Legitimation: The Production of a Gendered Social Order

Citation:

Condren, Mary. 1995. “Sacrifice and Political Legitimation: The Production of a Gendered Social Order.” Journal of Women’s History 7 (1): 160-89. doi:10.1353/jowh.2010.0375.

Author: Mary Condren

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Nationalism, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

Year: 1995

"Drunken Tans": Representations of Sex and Violence in the Anglo-Irish War

Citation:

Ryan, Louise. 2000. “‘Drunken Tans’: Representations of Sex and Violence in the Anglo-Irish War.” Feminist Review 66 (1): 73–94.

Author: Louise Ryan

Abstract:

War is a highly gendered experience which is both informed by and informs constructions of masculinity and femininity. The dominant depiction of masculine heroes and feminine victims simplifies the complex intersections of militarism, nationalism and gendered roles and identities. Focusing on a case study of the Anglo-Irish War or War of Independence (1919-1921), this paper examines how violence against women, especially sexual violence, was written about and reported in ways which framed representations of Irish and British masculinity and Irish femininity.

In addition, by analysing a range of varied sources including newspapers, autobiographical accounts and recorded testimonies, this paper attempts to assess the extent to which violence against women formed a key aspect of military practice in the war. In conclusion, [Ryan] engage[s] with some of the difficulties faced by researchers today in exploring evidence of gendered violence in specific historical, cultural and militarized contexts.

 

Keywords: sexual violence, militarism, Ireland, nationalism, masculinity, femininity

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland, United Kingdom

Year: 2000

Institutionalizing Gender in UK NGOs

Citation:

Wallace, Tina. 1998. “Institutionalizing Gender in UK NGOs.” Development in Practice 8 (2): 159–72.

Author: Tina Wallace

Abstract:

Drawing on recent research, it has been explored how far and in what ways UK NGOs have tried to incorporate gender into the policies and procedures of their international development work, and how far a formal recognition of gender issues is shaping the way each organization functions. The strengths and weaknesses of different strategies are assessed (such as specialist staff or units, formal gender policies, gender training, equal opportunity recruitment policies, and mainstreaming) for transforming organizational practice.

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, NGOs Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1998

Women Divided: Gender, Religion, and Politics in Northern Ireland

Citation:

Sales, Rosemary. 1997. Women Divided: Gender, Religion, and Politics in Northern Ireland. New York: Routledge.

Author: Rosemary Sales

Abstract:

The ongoing Irish peace process has renewed interest in the current social and political problems of Northern Ireland. In bringing together the issues of gender and inequality, Women Divided, a title in the International Studies of Women and Place series, offers new perspectives on women's rights and contemporary political issues. Women Divided argues that religious and political sectarianism in Northern Ireland has subordinated women. A historical review is followed by an analysis of the contemporary scene--state, market (particularly employment patterns), family and church--and the role of women's movements. The book concludes with an in-depth critique of the current peace process and its implications for women's rights in Northern Ireland, arguing that women's rights must be a central element in any agenda for peace and reconciliation. (Amazon)

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peacebuilding, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 1997

Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 2001. “Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel–Palestine and in the North of Ireland.” In Victims, Perpetrators or Actors: Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence, edited by Caroline Moser and Fiona Clark, 85-98. London: Zed Books.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 2001

Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland

Citation:

Sharoni, Simona. 1997. “Gendering Conflict and Peace in Israel/Palestine and the North of Ireland.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 27 (4): 1061-89.

Author: Simona Sharoni

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, United Kingdom

Year: 1997

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