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Northern Europe

Gender, Race, Militarism and Remembrance: The Everyday Geopolitics of the Poppy

Citation:

Basham, Victoria M. 2016. “Gender, Race, Militarism and Remembrance: The Everyday Geopolitics of the Poppy.” Gender, Place & Culture 23 (6): 883–96. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1090406.

 

Author: Victoria M. Basham

Abstract:

This article offers a feminist analysis of how British military violence and war are, in part, made possible through everyday embodied and emotional practices of remembrance and forgetting. Focusing on recent iterations of the Royal British Legion’s Annual Poppy Appeal, I explore how the emotionality, and gendered and racial politics of collective mourning provide opportunities for the emergence of ‘communities of feeling’, through which differently gendered and racialised individuals can find their ‘place’ in the national story. I aim to show that in relying on such gendered and racial logics of emotion, the Poppy Appeal invites communities of feeling to remember military sacrifice, whilst forgetting the violence and bloodiness of actual warfare. In so doing, the poppy serves to reinstitute war as an activity in which masculinised, muscular ‘protectors’ necessarily make sacrifices for the feminised ‘protected’. The poppy is thus not only a site for examining the everyday politics of contemporary collective mourning, but its emotional, gendered and racialised foundations and how these work together to animate the geopolitics of war.

Keywords: gender, race, everyday militarism, rememberance, emotion

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2016

Decolonizing Branded Peacebuilding: Abjected Women Talk back to the Finnish Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Citation:

Jauhola, Marjaana. 2016. “Decolonizing Branded Peacebuilding: Abjected Women Talk back to the Finnish Women, Peace and Security Agenda.” International Affairs 92 (2): 333–51. doi:10.1111/1468-2346.12554.

 

Author: Marjaana Jauhola

Abstract:

This article interrogates the sexual ideology of Finnish peacebuilding, the country’s foreign policy brand and the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda by examining the experiences of women ’written out of history’. Using the method of ’writing back’ I juxtapose the construction of a gender-friendly global peacebuilder identity with experiences in Finland after the Lapland War (1944–45) and in post-conflict Aceh, Indonesia (1976–2005). Although being divided tempo- rarily and geographically, these two contexts form an intimate part of the abjected and invisible part of the Finnish WPS agenda, revealing a number of colonial and violent overtones of postwar reconstruction: economic and political postwar dystopia of Skolt Sámi and neglect of Acehnese women’s experiences in branding the peace settlement and its implementation as a success. Jointly they critique and challenge both the gender/women-friendly peacebuilder identity construction of Finland and locate the sexual ideology of WPS to that of political economy and post-conflict political, legal and economic reforms. The article illustrates how the Finnish foreign policy brand has constructed the country as a global problem- solver and peacemaker, drawing on the heteronormative myth of already achieved gender equality on the one hand and, on the other, tamed asexual female subjec- tivity: the ‘good woman’ as peacebuilder or victim of violence. By drawing atten- tion to violent e ects of the global WPS agenda demanding decolonialization, I suggest that the real success of the WPS agenda should be evaluated by those who have been ‘written out’. 

 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexuality Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland, Indonesia

Year: 2016

Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements

Citation:

Cockburn, Cyntha. 2012. Anti-Militarism: Political and Gender Dynamics of Peace Movements. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Keywords: peace movements, women and peace, women, militarism, Japan

Annotation:

Contents

Acknowledgements                                                                                           x

Glossary of Acronyms                                                                                        xi

Introduction 1

  1. Finding a Voice: Women at Three Moments of British Peace Activism             19
  2. War Resisters and Pacifist Revolution                                                             46
  3. Legitimate Disobedience: An Anti-militarist Movement in Spain                     74                    
  4. Midlands City: Faiths and Philosophies Together for Palestine                        103
  5. Saying No to NATO: Divergent Strategies                                                       126                                        
  6. Seeing the Whole Picture: Anti-militarism in Okinawa and Japan                    152
  7. A State of Peace: Movements to Reunify and Demilitarize Korea                     180
  8. Guns and Bodies: Armed Conflict and Domestic Violence                                211
  9. Towards a Different Common Sense                                                                231

 

References                                                                                                            264

Index                                                                                                                    277

 

 

 

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, East Asia, Middle East, Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Japan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Going to the ‘Men's School'? Non-Heterosexual and Trans Youth Choosing Military Service in Finland

Citation:

Lehtonen, Jukka. 2015. "Going to the ‘Men's School'? Non-Heterosexual and Trans Youth Choosing Military Service in Finland." NORMA 10 (2): 117-35. doi:10.1080/18902138.2015.1050861.

Author: Jukka Lehtonen

Abstract:

Military service is obligatory for those who are legally men in Finland, and the majority of men do their service, although there is the possibility for women to apply for voluntary military service. In this article I analyse the experiences and stories of non-heterosexual men, non-heterosexual women, transfeminine and transmasculine respondents in relation to their military service. My data are from a survey with 1861 responses from trans and non-heterosexual people under 30 years of age. I analyse what kind of significance they give to gender and sexuality in their perceptions of military service. Military service is often seen in their stories as a ‘men’s school’ from which they distance themselves or which they see as a way to prove their masculinity. The four respondent groups reacted differently towards military service in many respects. Their reasons given for deciding to avoid military service included pacifist concerns on the part of some, but concerns relating to gender and sexuality were far more frequent in decisions to avoid military service. The army was often seen as best suited for heterosexual man, and military culture was seen as sexist and homophobic.

Keywords: masculinity, Transgender, non-heterosexual, heteronormativity, military service

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2015

New Labour, New Leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership

Citation:

Lambert, Cath. 2007. “New Labour, New Leaders? Gendering Transformational Leadership.” British Journal of Sociology of Education 28 (2): 149-163. 

Author: Cath Lambert

Abstract:

Transformational leadership is widely recognised as being central to the implementation of educational reform. In this paper I draw on selected educational speeches made by New Labour politicians in order to locate shifting discourses of leadership within the broader accountability framework through which the terms of the relationship between central government and head teachers have been re/configured in the United Kingdom. The gendered politics of transformation are examined, highlighting new and renewed forms of masculinity embedded within new leadership ideals. It is suggested that a gendered critique of transformational leadership offers an important contribution to critical analyses of the neo-liberal and managerialist educational project.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2007

Reconsidering Politics as a Man's World: Images of Male Political Leaders in France and Norway

Citation:

Krogstad, Anne and Aagoth E. Storvik. 2010. “Reconsidering Politics as a Man’s World: Images of Male Political Leaders in France and Norway.” Historical Reflections 36 (19): 19-38. 

Authors: Anne Krogstad, Aagoth E. Storvik

Abstract:

Researchers have often pointed to the masculine norms that are integrated into politics. This article explores these norms by studying male images of politics and power in France and Norway from 1945 to 2009. Both dress codes and more general leadership styles are discussed. The article shows changes in political aesthetics in both countries since the Second World War. The most radical break is seen in the way Norwegian male politicians present themselves. The traditional Norwegian leadership ethos of piety, moderation, and inward orientation is still important, but it is not as self-effacing and inelegant as it used to be. However, compared to the leaders in French politics, who still live up to a heroic leadership ideal marked by effortless superiority and seduction, the Norwegian leaders look modest. To explain the differences in political self-presentation and evaluation we argue that cultural repertoires are not only national constructions but also gendered constructions

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Norway

Year: 2010

Doing Gender, Practising Politics: Workplace Cultures in Local and Developed Government

Citation:

Charles, Nickie. 2014. "Doing Gender, Practising Politics: Workplace Cultures in Local and Developed Government." Gender, Work, & Organization 21 (4): 368-80. 

Author: Nickie Charles

Abstract:

This paper takes a workplace perspective to explore the ways in which institutional arrangements influence the doing of gender and the practising of politics. It compares the workplace culture of the National Assembly for Wales (NAfW) with that of local government in Wales, showing that the culture of the NAfW is experienced as less masculinized than local government and that women, and men, are less constrained to perform an aggressive, confrontational masculinity. This suggests that, in new political institutions, practising politics may be less closely tied to a particular way of doing gender and as a result may challenge the gendering of politics. Theoretically the paper engages with debates about doing, redoing and undoing gender, arguing that in order to understand how change can be brought about, attention needs to be paid to the structural context within which gender is done as well as the interactional level of doing gender.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Governance Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom

Year: 2014

Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict

Citation:

Ashe, Fidelma, and Ken Harland. 2014. "Troubling Masculinities: Changing Patterns of Violent Masculinities in a Society Emerging from Political Conflict." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 37 (9): 747-762. 

Authors: Fidelma Ashe, Ken Harland

Abstract:

Men's dominance of the political and military dimensions of the Northern Ireland conflict has meant that the story of the conflict has generally been a story about men. Ethno-nationalist antagonism reinforced men's roles as protectors and defenders of ethno-national groups and shaped violent expressions of masculinities. Due to the primacy of ethno-nationalist frameworks of analysis in research on the conflict, the relationships between gender and men's violence have been under-theorized. This article employs the framework of Critical Studies of Men and Masculinities to examine these relationships and also explores the changing patterns of men's violence in Northern Ireland. 

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Post-Conflict Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2014

‘‘Women Home and Away’’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations

Citation:

Hearn, Jeff, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, and Eeva Oinonen. 2008. “‘Women Home and Away’: Transnational Managerial Work and Gender Relations.” Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1): 41–54.

Authors: Jeff Hearn, Marjut Jyrkinen, Rebecca Piekkari, Eeva Oinonen

Abstract:

This article addresses the intersections, even blurrings, of two “homes” and two “aways” – the personal, 'private’ home and the corporate 'public’ 'away’, and the national home country and corporate base and the transnational work away. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with women and men top and middle managers in seven multinational corporations located in Finland, we examine the complex relations among transnational managerial work, corporate careers and personal, marriage and family-type relations, and their differences for women and men managers. This shows the very different personal and social worlds inhabited by senior women and men managers, and how transnational processes can make those differences even greater.

Keywords: family, Finland, gender, home, management, managers, men, transnational, transnationalization, women

Annotation:

 

 

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Finland

Year: 2008

Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination

Citation:

Hankivsky, Olena. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming: A Five‐Country Examination.” Politics & Policy 41 (5): 629-55.

 

Author: Olena Hankivsky

Abstract:

Although gender mainstreaming (GM) has been the international norm for working toward gender equality in policies and practices since the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing 1995, its impact has been uneven. The lack of substantive results has led to debate surrounding GM’s capacity for engendering meaningful policy change. This article synthesizes the input of key GM stakeholders (within government, academia, and nongovernmental organizations) across Canada, Australia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine. It discusses national approaches to mainstreaming gender, identifies key factors inhibiting and/or promoting GM, and proposes how current strategies can be modified, strengthened and/or replaced by alternative approaches. Central to the analysis is the question as to whether GM in current or expanded versions has the potential to addresses the wide variety of diversities among nation state populations.

Keywords: gender equality, women and politics, gender mainstreaming, national approaches, diversity, comparative policy, Canada, Australia, intersectionality

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Eastern Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

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