Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Middle East

Gender Quotas: A Key to Equality?: A Case Study of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Citation:

Dahlerup, Drude, and Anja Taarup Nordlund. 2004. Gender Quotas: A Key to Equality? : A Case Study of Iraq and Afghanistan. Stockholm University.

Authors: Drude Dahlerup, Anja Taarup Nordlund

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2004

Palestinian Women: Narrative Histories and Gendered Memory

Citation:

Kassem, Fatma. 2011. Palestinian Women: Narrative Histories and Gendered Memory. London & New York: Zed.

Author: Fatma Kassem

Abstract:

Palestinian Women is the first book to examine and document the experiences and the historical narrative of ordinary Palestinian women who witnessed the events of 1948 and became involuntary citizens of the State of Israel. Told in their own words, the women's experiences serve as a window for examining the complex intersections of gender, nationalism and citizenship in a situation of ongoing violent political conflict. Known in Palestinian discourse as the "Nakbeh," or the "Catastrophe," these events of 60 years ago still have a powerful resonance in contemporary Palestinian-Jewish relations in the State of Israel and in the act of narrating these stories, the author argues that the realm of memory is a site of commemoration and resistance.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

'Honour’-Based Violence in Kurdish Communities

Citation:

Gill, Aisha K., Nazand Begikhani, and Gill Hague. 2012. “‘Honour’-Based Violence in Kurdish Communities.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (2): 75–85. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.02.001.

Authors: Aisha K. Gill, Nazand Begikhani, Gill Hague

Abstract:

While there is a considerable body of literature dealing with various forms of violence against women, comparatively little research has explored the phenomenon of ‘honour’-based violence (HBV) within the Kurdish diaspora. This paper seeks to challenge both dominant understandings of HBV and the institutional structures that underpin its context-specific practice as a method for controlling and subjugating women. In doing so, the paper draws on original research involving thirty-four in-depth interviews with stakeholders working to address HBV in Kurdish communities in Britain: the interviewees included police officers, prosecutors, staff from government bodies and staff from women's non-governmental organisations. After exploring the role of ‘shame’ and ‘honour’ in Kurdish communities, and how value-systems predicated on gendered understandings of these concepts give rise to HBV, the paper offers a number of recommendations for improving policy and practice, especially in relation to police responses.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Justice, Post-Conflict, Torture, Violence Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey

Year: 2012

Female Suicide Bombers - Male Suicide Bombing? Looking for Gender in Reporting the Suicide Bombings of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Citation:

Brunner, Claudia. 2005. “Female Suicide Bombers – Male Suicide Bombing? Looking for Gender in Reporting the Suicide Bombings of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict.” Global Society 19 (1): 29–48. doi:10.1080/1360082042000316031.

Author: Claudia Brunner

Abstract:

The primary aim of this article is to bring together questions of both the gender representation (notions of femininity and masculinity) and the gender order (existing social relations and power structures) of Palestinian suicide bombing, and thereby to offer a rather unusual perspective on a sensitive topic within what is generally an overanalysed conflict. It is based on the way female suicide bombers have been represented in the media in the first half of 2002, supplemented by publications in 2003 and January 2004. Print and online articles constitute the main basis of interpretation that aims to bring gender as an analytical tool into the continuing debate on suicide bombing. 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2005

The Influence of Combat and Interpersonal Trauma on PTSD, depression, and Alcohol Misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF Women Veterans

Citation:

Hassija, Christina M., Matthew Jakupcak, Shira Maguen, and Jillian C. Shipherd. 2012. “The Influence of Combat and Interpersonal Trauma on PTSD, Depression, and Alcohol Misuse in U.S. Gulf War and OEF/OIF Women Veterans.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 25 (2): 216–19. doi:10.1002/jts.21686.

Authors: Christina M. Hassija, Matthew Jakupcak, Shira Maguen, Jillian C. Shipherd

Abstract:

The present study evaluated the impact of combat and interpersonal trauma exposure in a sample of 115 U.S. women veterans from Gulf War I and the Iraq and Afghanistan wars on 3 postdeployment trauma-related mental health outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PSS), depressive symptom severity (DSS), and alcohol misuse. Patients presenting for healthcare services at a Veterans Affairs postdeployment health specialty clinic completed screening questionnaires that assessed combat exposure, lifetime interpersonal trauma history of childhood neglect, physical, or sexual abuse, and adult sexual and physical assault. In a regression model, combat exposure was the only significant independent variable associated with PSS, DSS, and alcohol misuse (β = .42, .27 and B = 1.58, respectively) even after adding lifetime interpersonal assault exposure to the model. Results highlight the negative effects of combat exposure on treatment-seeking women veterans' postdeployment mental health. Incorporating combat exposure into routine screening procedures for Gulf War and Iraq and Afghanistan war women veterans can aid in mental health treatment planning.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2012

Stress, Coping, and Mental Health-Seeking Behaviors: Gender Differences in OEF/OIF Health Care Providers

Citation:

Gibbons, Susanne W., Scott D. Barnett, Edward J. Hickling, Pamela L. Herbig-Wall, and Dorraine D. Watts. 2012. “Stress, Coping, and Mental Health-Seeking Behaviors: Gender Differences in OEF/OIF Health Care Providers.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 25 (1): 115–19. doi:10.1002/jts.21661.

Authors: Scott D. Barnett, Susanne W. Gibbons, Pamela L. Herbig-Wall, Edward J. Hickling, Dorraine D. Watts

Abstract:

Health care providers (HCPs) are often placed in positions of heightened stress when serving in military operations. As military HCPs have a large number of female providers, there is a concern that gender may influence both risk and resiliency within the health care provider subgroup. The purpose of this secondary analysis of the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel (data collected April through August 2005) is to describe stress, coping, and health-seeking behaviors of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom deployed military health care providers and the role gender may have for both health care officers and specialists. Female HCP responses indicate the lives of these women are significantly impacted by their family responsibilities. Reluctance of females to seek mental health care is concerning with perhaps more concern over career than personal well-being. Findings included (a) concern about performance, odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.43, 8.12] for enlisted females, OR = 2.83, 95% CI [0.31, 25.66] for female officers; (b) problems with money, OR = 1.6 CI [0.69, 3.7] for enlisted females; (c) having a drink to cope, OR = 3.26, 95% CI [0.22, 48.68] for enlisted females; and (d) damage military career to seek mental health care, OR = 1.78, 95% CI [0.59, 5.39] for female officers. Results indicate needed provider awareness concerning mental health-seeking behavior and sensitivity toward gender differences that contribute to unique manifestations of operational stress outcomes.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Health, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2012

Contentious and Prefigurative Politics: Vigilante Groups' Struggle against Sexual Violence in Egypt (2011-2013)

Citation:

Tadros, Mariz. 2015. “Contentious and Prefigurative Politics: Vigilante Groups’ Struggle against Sexual Violence in Egypt (2011–2013).” Development and Change 46 (6): 1345–68. doi:10.1111/dech.12210.

Author: Mariz Tadros

Abstract:

This article analyses the drivers, mobilizational tactics and manoeuvrings of informal, youth-led initiatives that emerged in post-Mubarak Egypt to counter the growing threat of sexual violence against women in public spaces. The findings are based on empirical research into youth-led activism against gender-based violence during 2011‒2013. The approach adopted is a case study of three initiatives, Bassma (Imprint), Shoft Taharosh (Harassment Seen) and Opantish (Operation Anti Sexual Harassment). Informal youth-based initiatives in the context of the post-January 2011 uprising have generally been criticized for their lack of sustainability, organizationally and politically. However, the examination of activism against gender-based violence through the lens of prefigurative politics shows the inherent value of experimentation and its contribution to innovations in public outreach. The value of the initiatives studied in this article also lies in their mobilizational power which inadvertently produces ‘repertoires’ of knowledge, skills and resources to engage the citizenry and capture their imagination. In the long run, such repertoires may allow for the emergence of organized and sustained forms of political agency. The article suggests that a cross-fertilization of prefigurative and contentious politics offers a framework for understanding temporally- and spatially-bound forms of collective political agency.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Middle East Countries: Egypt

Year: 2015

Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among OEF/OIF Veterans: An Item Response Theory Analysis

Citation:

King, Matthew W., Amy E. Street, Jaimie L. Gradus, Dawne S. Vogt, and Patricia A. Resick. 2013. “Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among OEF/OIF Veterans: An Item Response Theory Analysis.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 26 (2): 175–83. doi:10.1002/jts.21802.

Authors: Jaimie L. Gradus, Matthew W. King, Patricia A. Resick, Amy E. Street, Dawne S. Vogt

Abstract:

Establishing whether men and women tend to express different symptoms of posttraumatic stress in reaction to trauma is important for both etiological research and the design of assessment instruments. Use of item response theory (IRT) can reveal how symptom reporting varies by gender and help determine if estimates of symptom severity for men and women are equally reliable. We analyzed responses to the PTSD Checklist (PCL) from 2,341 U.S. military veterans (51% female) who completed deployments in support of operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OEF/OIF]), and tested for differential item functioning by gender with an IRT-based approach. Among men and women with the same overall posttraumatic stress severity, women tended to report more frequent concentration difficulties and distress from reminders whereas men tended to report more frequent nightmares, emotional numbing, and hypervigilance. These item-level gender differences were small (on average d = 0.05), however, and had little impact on PCL measurement precision or expected total scores. For practical purposes, men's and women's severity estimates had similar reliability. This provides evidence that men and women veterans demonstrate largely similar profiles of posttraumatic stress symptoms following exposure to military-related stressors, and some theoretical perspectives suggest this may hold in other traumatized populations.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Mental Health, PTSD, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2013

Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicidal Ideation Among Male Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans Seeking Treatment for PTSD

Citation:

Kimbrel, Nathan A., Margaret E. Johnson, Carolina Clancy, Michael Hertzberg, Claire Collie, Elizabeth E. Van Voorhees, Michelle F. Dennis, Patrick S. Calhoun, and Jean C. Beckham. 2014. “Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicidal Ideation Among Male Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans Seeking Treatment for PTSD.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 27 (4): 474–77. doi:10.1002/jts.21932.

Authors: Patrick S. Calhoun, Carolina Clancy, Claire Collie, Michelle F. Dennis, Michael Hertzberg, Margaret E. Johnson, Nathan A. Kimbrel, Elizabeth E. Van Voorhees, Jean C. Beckham

Abstract:

The objectives of the present research were to examine the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among 214 U.S. male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans seeking treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to evaluate the relationship between DSH and suicidal ideation within this population. Approximately 56.5% (n = 121) reported engaging in DSH during their lifetime; 45.3% (n = 97) reported engaging in DSH during the previous 2 weeks. As hypothesized, DSH was a significant correlate of suicidal ideation among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans, OR = 3.88, p < .001, along with PTSD symptom severity, OR = 1.03, p < .001, and combat exposure, OR = 0.96, p = .040. A follow-up analysis identified burning oneself, OR = 17.14, p = .017, and hitting oneself, OR = 7.93, p < .001, as the specific DSH behaviors most strongly associated with suicidal ideation. Taken together, these findings suggest that DSH is quite prevalent among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans seeking treatment for PTSD and is associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation within this population. Routine assessment of DSH is recommended when working with male Iraq/Afghanistan veterans seeking treatment for PTSD.

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Health, Mental Health, Trauma Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2014

'It Was Better During the War': Narratives of Everyday Violence in a Palestinian Refugee Camp

Citation:

Latif, Nadia. 2012. “‘it Was Better during the War’: Narratives of Everyday Violence in a Palestinian Refugee Camp.” Feminist Review 101 (1): 24–40. doi:10.1057/fr.2011.55.

Author: Nadia Latif

Abstract:

The distinction between what is commonly regarded as the routine of impoverishment and what is acknowledged and remarked upon as violence is increasingly being questioned in scholarship and public policy circles. Interrogating the distinction between routine and remarkable not only reveals the habits and relationships constituting everyday life as the site of violence, but also foregrounds questions of gender. Given that the everyday is shaped by a given community's norms regarding the gendered division of labour that produces and reproduces the conditions of the everyday, in what ways is violence as well as its experience gendered? This article examines this question in the particular context of Palestinian camp refugees’ lived experience of forced displacement in Lebanon. It explores the ways in which the violence used against Palestinian camp refugees draws on norms regarding masculinity and femininity shared by the refugees as well as their Lebanese oppressors. It also examines the ways in which Palestinian camp refugees’ everyday experience of impoverishment as well as the acknowledged violence of forced displacement, subjection to Lebanese military intelligence control, and participation in the armed struggle for national liberation are constituted by and constitutive of unequal subject positions of gender, class and citizenship.

Keywords: Palestinian refugees, Palestinian refugee camps, gender, violence, Lebanese civil war, the everyday

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Citizenship, Class, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2012

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Middle East