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Middle East

Militarization and Violence Against Women in Conflict Zones in the Middle East: A Palestinian Case-Study

Citation:

Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Nadera. 2009. Militarization and Violence Against Women in Conflict Zones in the Middle East: A Palestinian Case-Study. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian

Abstract:

This book examines and discusses the ordeals that women face as violence is perpetrated against them in politically conflicted and militarized areas. In conflict zones, every act is affected by, dependent on and mobilised by militaristic values. The militarization of both the private and public space and the use of the gendered bodies increases the vulnerability of both men and women, and further masculinises the patriarchal hegemonic powers. Through the stories and ordeals of women in politically conflicted areas and war zones, and by sharing voices of Palestinian women from the Occupied Territories, it is shown that claims such as 'security reasoning', fear from 'terrorism', nationalism, preservation of 'cultural authenticity' and preservation of the land can turn women's bodies and lives into boundary markers and thus sites of violence, contestation and resistance.

Annotation:

 

 

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Violence Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Lebanese Women Disability Rights Activists: War-Time Experiences

Citation:

Wehbi, Samantha. 2010. “Lebanese Women Disability Rights Activists: War-Time Experiences.” Women’s Studies International Forum 33 (5): 455–63. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2010.05.001.

Author: Samantha Wehbi

Abstract:

Dominant feminist scholarship in the West has tended to equate being Arab or Muslim with oppression and to negate the active histories of resistance of women in these societies. In addition, feminist and disability studies scholarship has largely omitted an exploration of the experiences of women with disabilities. This paper attempts to addresses these tendencies and gaps in the scholarship by presenting the findings of a case study adopting a critical disability research approach. The study explored the activism role and experiences of 14 women with disabilities and their allies working in various regions of Lebanon during situations of war. Relying on a feminist postcolonial analysis and focusing on the intersection of gender and disability in the experiences of the activists, several main themes emerged from the semi-structured interviews: awareness of oppression; mitigating the impact of oppression; and the balancing acts negotiating motherhood and activism.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon

Year: 2010

Gendered Space, Power Relationships and Domestic Planning and Design among Displaced Israeli Bedouin

Citation:

Meir, Avinoam, and Maria Gekker. 2011. “Gendered Space, Power Relationships and Domestic Planning and Design among Displaced Israeli Bedouin.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (3): 232–41. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.01.010.

Authors: Avinoam Meir, Maria Gekker

Abstract:

Following displacement to State planned towns, Israeli Bedouin women lost many of their traditional agro-pastoral productive roles and became subject to stricter patriarchal confinement to their homes. Despite becoming the focus of their lifeworld, their involvement in establishing it, and their domestic gender planning and design relationships, have received little attention. In this study, roles of husbands and wives and participation in planning and designing their homes were examined in the new Bedouin town of Hura. Differences emerge between the displaced generation and the second urban generation, characterized by different ages and educational levels and varying accessibility to forbidden public spaces. This component of Bedouin women's identity and power has begun to recover, following deterioration after displacement. And yet the most significant involvement of women is restricted to the aesthetic, rather than to the physical domestic aspects of gendered relationships. Greater accessibility to hitherto forbidden public spaces has become a major source of changing internal domestic gender planning and design relationships.

The Bedouin of the Negev desert are part of Israel's internal refugee population resulting from the 1948 Israeli War of Independence/Palestinian Naqba (Abu-Rabia, 1994 and Abu-Rabia, 2002). Many of them have been twice displaced since then: first, from their traditional tribal territories and agro-pastoral subsistence economy into a militarily administered enclave, a phase that lasted until the mid-1960s, and second, since then, about half of the rapidly growing population into State planned towns. This process of settling in town after displacement has been extensively studied from a variety of cultural social economic and political perspectives (Meir, 1997 and Ben-David, 2004). One of its sub-processes is the novel experience of urban permanent home building, a most fundamental and critical one in striking roots in the new environment. Yet, despite receiving some attention (Ben-David, 1992 and Ben-David, 1993) and the recent spurt in research on Bedouin women, no attention whatsoever has been paid to the house project as a highly intensive arena of gendered relationships. In particular, research on Bedouin women misses here one of their most intimate spatial areas of experience within a patriarchal social setting, second only, perhaps, to the self and body. We refer to their unique need to both conceptually and physically reconstruct their homes, as well as their identities within them, amidst the deep socio-cultural crisis following forced relocation.

This paper is thus concerned with the gender dynamics of Bedouin husbands and wives in the process of domestic planning and design within the new semi-urban environment. The questions addressed refer to the process of gendered power relationships within the patriarchal household following displacement, how an understanding of improved women's access to other social and economic resources helps placing this process in context, and whether it is capable of empowering women externally within the Bedouin community at large.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Urban Displacement, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2011

Palestinian Women in the Intifada: Fighting on Two Fronts

Citation:

Kuttab, Eileen. 1993. “Palestinian Women in the Intifada: Fighting on Two Fronts.” Arab Studies Quarterly 15 (2): 1-69.

Author: Eileen Kuttab

Abstract:

"Focuses on the role of Palestinian women in the Intifada, the first Palestinian mass mobilization and culmination of resistance to the Israeli occupation. Historical overview of Palestinian women's participation in the national struggle; Democratization of the women's movement; Comparative perspective between the `old' and `new' women's movement; Platforms and agendas of the women's committees" (EBSCOhost).

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1993

Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of the Palestinian National Movement

Citation:

Kawar, Amal. 1996. Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of the Palestinian National Movement. New York: SUNY Press.

Author: Amal Kawar

Annotation:

SUMMARY

"Based on interviews of the PLO's top women leaders in the Palestinian diaspora and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Daughters of Palestine provides the first examination of the full history of women's involvement in the Palestinian National Movement from the revolution in the mid-1960s to the Palestinian-Israeli peace process in the early 1990s. Going beyond media imagery, Amal Kawar reviews the women's social and political backgrounds to explain how they overcame the traditional gender roles pervasive in Arab societies and became involved in politics. She then focuses on particular periods in the history of the Palestinian movement, as it moved from Jordan to Lebanon, Tunisia, and the Occupied Territories. Issues covered include women's nationalist activities, their relationship to the male leadership, the impact of crises, and the upsurge of the Islamist movement. A consistent theme of this investigation is how conflicts and crises, inside and outside the Palestinian arena, challenge and frame the success of women's nationalist work. Daughters of Palestine highlights the dilemma of national liberation struggles that both promote and co-opt women's liberation aspirations" (WorldCat). 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Figures

Prologue

Acknowledgments

1. Three Generations of Women Leaders

2. AMMAN Early Years of Revolutionary Struggle

3. BEIRUT National Mobilization and Civil War

4. TUNIS Decline of Mobilization in the Palestinian Diaspora

5. JERUSALEM Women's Committees in the Occupied Territories

Epilogue

Appendix: Interview List

Notes

References

Index

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Nationalism, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Tunisia

Year: 1996

Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan

Citation:

Hasso, Frances Susan. 2005. Resistance, Repression, and Gender Politics in Occupied Palestine and Jordan. New York: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Frances Susan Hasso

Annotation:

Summary:
Useful for students of gender and Middle East studies, this book examines gender, women's involvement, and sexuality in the ideologies and strategies of a transnational Palestinian political movement. It focuses on the central party apparatus of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the Democratic Front branches. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Origins of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine
 
2. The Impact of the State on Mobilization in Jordan and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, 1967-1987
 
3. Civil War in Jordan, 1969-1971
 
4. Divergent Protest Histories in the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, 1969-1987
 
5. The "Masses" Are Women: The Palestinian Federation of Women's Action Committees in the Occupied Territories, 1978-1987
 
6. Modernity, Morality, and Mobilizing Women in Democratic Front Branches, 1973-1987
 
7. Political Transformations in the Occupied Territories and Jordan
 
8. Ruptures, Betrayals, and New Realities in Democratic Front Branches and the Palestinian Federation of Women's Action Committees

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2005

The Women’s Movement, Feminism, and the National Struggle in Palestine: Unresolved Contradictions

Citation:

Glavanis, Kathy. 1992. “The Women’s Movement, Feminism, and the National Struggle in Palestine: Unresolved Contradictions.” Journal of Gender Studies 1 (4): 463–74. doi:10.1080/09589236.1992.9960513.

Author: Kathy Glavanis

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1992

The Nation and Its “New” Women: The Palestinian Women’s Movement 1920-1948

Citation:

Fleischmann, Ellen. 2003. The Nation and Its “New” Women: The Palestinian Women’s Movement 1920-1948. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Author: Ellen Fleischmann

Abstract:

"Though they are almost completely absent from the historical record, Palestinian women were extensively involved in the unfolding national struggle in their country during the British mandate period. Led primarily by urban, educated women from the middle and upper classes of Arab society, Palestinian women struggled against British colonialism and against Jewish settlement by holding a national congress, meeting with government officials, smuggling arms, demonstrating, and participating in regional and international conferences. This book is the first comprehensive historical study of the emergence and development of the Palestinian women's movement in this important historical period. Drawing from little-studied source material including oral histories, newspapers, memoirs, and government documents, Ellen Fleischmann not only shows what these women accomplished within the political arena, but also explores the social, cultural, and economic contexts within which they operated. Charting the emergence of an indigenous feminism in Palestine, this work joins efforts to broaden European and American definitions of feminism by incorporating non-Western perspectives"(University of California Press). 

Annotation:

TABEL OF CONTENTS

Part. 1. Construction of a "new" Palestinian woman

Introduction : inscription into the national narrative

Palestinian women and the rule of the British mandate

The "woman question" in Palestine and the debate in the Arabic press

 

Part. 2. The "new" woman in politics: tThe Palestinian women's movement, 1929-1948

The roots of movement : charity and the nation

Woman is all the nation : the Palestinian women's movement, 1929-1939

The politics of the women's movement : the question of feminism, nationalism, and the "new" woman

Pan-Arabism and the 1940s.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2003

Triple Tensions: Somali Refugee Women in Yemen

Citation:

de Regt, Marina. 2008. “Triple Tensions: Somali Refugee Women in Yemen.” Al-Raida (120-121): 45–52.

Author: Marina de Regt

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender Roles Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Somalia, Yemen

Year: 2008

Pages

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