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Middle East

Palestinian Prison Ontologies

Citation:

Bornstein, Avram. 2010.“Palestinian Prison Ontologies.” Dialectical Anthropology 34 (4): 459-72.

Author: Avram Bornstein

Abstract:

During the first intifada uprising (1987–1993), thousands of Palestinians were arrested annually, and mass incarceration affected as many as 100,000 families. Relying on several recent ethnographies, and other published research including some of my own, this article describes the contests over Palestinian prison ontology as organized by (a) the jailers, (b) the prisoners, (c) the families of prisoners, and (d) a service agency in the emerging Palestinian Authority. What becomes evident is that mass incarceration involves ontological struggles over the framing of justice, agency, and gender. The conclusion asks how these ontological struggles may be part of other modern prisons.

Keywords: political prisoners, Israel-Palestine, justice, gender, agency

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture

Citation:

Baxter, Diane. 2007. “Honor Thy Sister: Selfhood, Gender, and Agency in Palestinian Culture.” Anthropological Quarterly 80 (3): 737-75.

Author: Diane Baxter

Abstract:

In this article, I examine the ideology of honor among West Bank Palestinians most particularly as it relates to sexuality and gender relations within families. I contend that the iconic Arab and Palestinian subject of the ideal, gendered, connected self—a central concept that undergirds most representations of honor—elides the significance of the individual and obscures the rights and strengths of women and the obligations, vulnerabilities, and anxieties of men. Beyond a critique of representations of honor, subjectivities, and patriarchy, I suggest that ideological-culturally-based explanatory models of behavior favor coherency over ambivalence and untidiness. In terms of honor and the subjectivities that inform it, such explanations have led to an over-reliance on resistance as a method of analyzing "anomalies." I argue that for Palestinian women and men, subjectivity and agency are achieved within and are a reflection of structural, ideological, and experiential configurations, rather than as resistances to them.

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Rights, Women's Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2007

The Politics of Pain and the Uses of Torture

Citation:

Philipose, Liz. 2007. “The Politics of Pain and the Uses of Torture.” Signs 32 (4): 1047-71.

Author: Liz Philipose

Annotation:

Summary:
"Since September 11, 2001, the equation of Muslim with terrorist has lodged in the popular imagination in the United States. This conflation undermines the ability to distinguish between a few individuals who have committed or intend to commit acts of extrastate violence (terrorism) and the rest of the Muslim population, a population that consists of more than 1 billion people worldwide. Although public discussions of the so-called Muslim terrorist are often accompanied by disclaimers acknowledging that not all Muslims are a problem or that the political abuse of Islam, rather than Islam itself, is a problem, these caveats fail to dislodge the increasingly intractable conflation of Muslim with terrorist. This article examines how the racialized terrorist is produced through various war- on-terror tactics, including the indefinite detainment and torture of prisoners in U.S. military detention centers and the circulation of torture photographs" (Philipose 2007, 1047).

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Race, Religion, Sexual Violence, SV against men, Terrorism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2007

Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon

Citation:

Yaqub, Nadia. 2009. “Gendering the Palestinian Political Cartoon.” Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication 2 (2): 187–213.

Author: Nadia Yaqub

Abstract:

This paper examines the representation of the distribution of agency and responsibility across gender roles in Palestinian political cartoons. Cartoons are read to discover the nature of family dynamics, the relationship between the home and what lies outside it, and public and private sources of culture and Palestinian identity. Included are the work of Naji al-Ali whose widely- read cartoons appeared in Arabic language newspapers from the 1960’s until his assassination in 1987, and that of six contemporary cartoonists: Baha Boukhari, Khalil Abu Arafeh, Omayya Joha, Muhammed Sabaaneh, Naser al-Jafari, and Emad Hajjaj. In al-Ali’s cartoons, Palestinian men and their families are deeply affected by the pressures of dispossession, violence, and exploitation by elites. However, because the disruption affects mainly the public sphere of military action, politics, and wage labor, it is men who are most negatively affected by those pressures. They are often at a loss as to how to respond, and do not always make wise choices. On the other hand, al-Ali locates the idea of Palestine squarely in the private sphere, in women’s roles in biological and social reproduction. Because this idea is intact, women are able to perform their roles even in states of extreme violence and dispossession. The cartoons of later artists differ in that masculinity is divorced from military action, and although politics is largely ineffectual, men are endowed with agency in the public sphere. Women in the later cartoons continue to be defined chiefly, though not exclusively, by the domestic sphere, but Palestinian motherhood is in crisis and women in grave danger in many of these cartoons, a reflection of the crisis of the idea of Palestine as a whole and sound homeland.

Keywords: Palestinian, political cartoons, gender, representation, masculinity, Naji al-Ali

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2009

The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories

Citation:

Holt, Maria. 2010. “The Unlikely Terrorist: Women and Islamic Resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories.” Critical Studies on Terrorism 3 (3): 365–82.

Author: Maria Holt

Abstract:

Islamic resistance groups in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories have been accused of using terrorist tactics to achieve their aims. Although some critics suggest that such groups may also have hijacked the democratic agenda in ways that disadvantage women, their supporters claim that they are promoting a model of modernity that is empowering women. This article examines the reasons why some Lebanese Shi’i and Palestinian women support the resistance against Israeli invasion and occupation that is justified in terms of religion. Far from seeing the actions of Hizbullah in Lebanon and Hamas in the Palestinian territories as acts of terrorism, many women welcome the resistance as it brings dignity and meaning to their lives and enhances feelings of national identification.

Keywords: women, islamic resistance, Lebanon, Palestinian territories, modernity, female martyr, Hamas, Hizbullah

Topics: Gender, Women, Religion, Terrorism, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences

Citation:

Killian, Caitlin, Jennifer Olmsted, and Alexis Doyle. 2012. “Motivated Migrants: (Re)framing Arab Women’s Experiences.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (6): 432–46. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.09.006.

Authors: Caitlin Killian, Jennifer Olmsted, Alexis Doyle

Abstract:

Much of the existing literature on Arab migration either assumes women do not migrate or focuses on their experiences in the diaspora. Using two unique data sets, one collected in a source country (Palestine) and the other in a host country (France), we are able to make visible a type of migration that has remained largely invisible to date. Combining quantitative analysis and a case study approach, we examine patterns as well as the motivations for Arab women's migration, categorizing motivations as political, educational, and employment-related, but also highlighting how political and economic forces, as well as educational and familial motives, are difficult to disentangle, and may shift over time. We also contextualize our findings historically by exploring the multifaceted manner in which structural factors, such as political systems and economic forces, influence both decisions to leave one's home and reception in the host country in gendered ways. In particular, we find that in recent decades new opportunities have emerged for women to migrate to pursue educational goals.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: France, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2012

Cowboy of the World? Gender Discourse and the Iraq War Debate

Citation:

Christensen, Wendy M., and Myra Marx Ferree. 2008. “Cowboy of the World? Gender Discourse and the Iraq War Debate.” Qualitative Sociology 31 (3): 287–306. doi:10.1007/s11133-008-9106-0.

Authors: Wendy M. Christensen, Myra Marx Ferree

Abstract:

In this article we examine the debate preceding the most recent war in Iraq to show how gendered framing can compromise the quality of debate. Drawing on a sample of national news discourse in the year before the war began, we show that both anti-war and pro-war speakers draw on binary images of gender to construct their cases for or against war. Speakers cast the Bush administration’s argument for invasion either as a correct “macho” stance or as inappropriate, out-of-control masculinity. The most prominent gendered image in war debate is that of the cowboy, used to characterize both President Bush and US foreign policy in general. The cowboy is positioned against a diplomatic form of masculinity that is associated with Europe and valued by anti-war speakers, but criticized by pro-war speakers. Articles that draw on gender images show a lower quality of the debate, measured by the extent to which reasons rather than ad hominem arguments are used to support or rebut assertions.

Keywords: gender, Iraq war, News debate, Cowboy masculinity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2008

Legal Violence Against Syrian Female Refugees in Turkey

Citation:

Kivilcim, Zeynep. 2016. “Legal Violence Against Syrian Female Refugees in Turkey.” Feminist Legal Studies 24 (2): 193–214. doi:10.1007/s10691-016-9323-y.

Author: Zeynep Kivilcim

Abstract:

Turkey hosts the world’s largest community of Syrians displaced by the ongoing armed conflict. The object of this article is to explore the damaging effects of a hostile legal context on female Syrian refugees in Turkey. I base my analysis on scholarship that theorises immigration legislation as a system of legal violence and I argue that the Temporary Protection Regulation and the Law on Foreigners and International Protection that govern the legal status of refugees in Turkey inflict legal violence on Syrian female refugees. This legislation keeps them in the regime of temporary protection and prevents their access to international protection. The temporary protection regime serves furthermore as the main determinant for other forms of legal violence inflicted by various actors. I explore the effects of the Turkish government’s inaction in terms of preventing and sanctioning the abuse of Syrian female refugees as unpaid sex and household workers. I show that the extended legal limbo on the conditions of employment of Syrian refugees secures female Syrians as the most precarious workforce for Turkey’s various sectors. Finally I claim that the forced confinement of Syrian beggars in refugee camps is instrumentalised for their disciplinary regulation.

Keywords: Legal violence, Syrian refugees, Temporary protection, Turkey

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, International Law, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Syria, Turkey

Year: 2016

Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict

Citation:

Holt, Maria. 2004. “Palestinian Women Negotiate Violent Conflict.” Al-Raida. 21(103): 26-30.

Author: Maria Holt

Abstract:

On 6 September 2003, Palestinian women in the West Bank town of Tulkarem organized a demonstration of more than 200 Palestinian, Israeli and international women to protest against the Apartheid Wall that is being built by Israel in the occupied territories. Their action should not surprise us as Palestinian women are well known for their active participation in resisting the occupation. Given the severity of their situation, they have little choice but to focus first and foremost on the national struggle. But does this mean that “women’s issues” will inevitably be sidelined? Are such concerns a luxury, to be attended to once the serious business of war is ended? 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2004

Where do Women Stand? New Evidence on the Presence and Absence of Gender Equality in the World's Constitutions

Citation:

Cassola, Adèle, Amy Raub, Danielle Foley, and Jody Heymann. 2014. “Where Do Women Stand? New Evidence on the Presence and Absence of Gender Equality in the World’s Constitutions.” Politics & Gender 10 (02): 200–235. doi:10.1017/S1743923X1400004X.

Authors: Adèle Cassola, Amy Raub, Danielle Foley, Jody Heymann

Abstract:

In countries around the world, constitutional protections of women's rights have provided a legal foundation to combat discriminatory laws, customs, and actions and a catalyst for advances in gender equality. This article draws on newly available data from 191 countries to analyze women's constitutional rights across the spheres of general equality and nondiscrimination, political participation, social and economic rights, family life, and customary and religious law. We examined how gender-specific and universal protections differed according to a constitution's year of adoption and last amendment, and identified regional patterns that persisted across all decades. Women were explicitly guaranteed general equality or nondiscrimination in 81% of constitutions, some aspect of political equality in 32%, marital equality in 27%, some aspect of work equality in 26%, and equal educational rights in 9% of constitutions. Protection of women's rights increased substantially between 1980 and 2011. As of June 2011, however, no constitution in the Middle East and North Africa guaranteed gender-specific protection in education, work, or marriage, and there were no guarantees of marital equality in South Asian constitutions. Of the constitutions that protected some aspect of gender equality, 5% stated that customary or religious laws could prevail over constitutional provisions.

Topics: Gender Equality/Inequality, Constitutions, Post-conflict Governance, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, South Asia

Year: 2014

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