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Eastern Europe

Peace and Justice through a Feminist Lens: Gender Justice and the Women’s Court for the Former Yugoslavia

Citation:

O’Reilly, Maria. “Peace and Justice through a Feminist Lens: Gender Justice and the Women’s Court for the Former Yugoslavia.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 10, no. 3 (July 2, 2016): 419–445.

Author: Maria O'Reilly

Abstract:

Post-conflict interventions to ‘deal with’ violent pasts have moved from exception to global norm. Early efforts to achieve peace and justice were critiqued as ‘gender-blind’—for failing to address sexual and gender-based violence, and neglecting the gender-specific interests and needs of women in transitional settings. The advent of UN Security Council resolutions on ‘Women, Peace and Security’ provided a key policy framework for integrating both women and gender issues into transitional justice processes and mechanisms. Despite this, gender justice and equality in (post-)conflict settings remain largely unachieved. This article explores efforts to attain gender-just peace in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). It critically examines the significance of a recent ‘bottom-up’ truth-telling project—the Women’s Court for the former Yugoslavia—as a locally engaged approach to achieving justice and redress for women impacted by armed conflict. Drawing on participant observation, documentary analysis, and interviews with women activists, the article evaluates the successes and shortcomings of responding to gendered forms of wartime violence through truth-telling. Extending Nancy Fraser’s tripartite model of justice to peacebuilding contexts, the article advances notions of recognition, redistribution and representation as crucial components of gender-just peace. It argues that recognizing women as victims and survivors of conflict, achieving a gender-equitable distribution of material and symbolic resources, and enabling women to participate as agents of transitional justice processes are all essential for transforming the structural inequalities that enable gender violence and discrimination to materialize before, during, and after conflict. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: feminism, gender justice, international, local, Nancy Fraser, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Justice, Transitional Justice, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2016

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights

Citation:

Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi

Annotation:

Summary:
Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
 
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
 
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
 
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
 
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
 
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
 
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
 
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
 
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
 
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
 
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
 
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government

Citation:

Neaga D.E. 2012. "'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government." European Journal of Science and Theology 8 (1): 291-301.

Author: D.E. Neaga

Abstract:

There are a consistent number of studies showing that women are more vulnerable than men in terms of poverty and social exclusion. Romania is not an exception. Poverty and underdevelopment are major topics in the area of international political economy and, in the context of global economic crisis, international institutions like IMF and WB became more and more relevant. The main question to which I try to give an answer in this paper is: how the IMF policies/politics and those of the Romanian government challenged the issue of gender inequalities during the recent economic crisis? In order to do so I will concentrate my arguments in two major directions. First, I will underline the necessity of gender mainstreaming in international political economy and secondly I will analyze the neoliberal project and the Romanian case in terms of a deepening gender gap as a result of the agreement with IMF. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: neoliberalism, economic crisis, women, IMF, international political economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Romania

Year: 2012

Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts

Citation:

Archambault, Caroline, and Annelies Zoomers, eds. 2015. Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. London and New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315765822.

Authors: Caroline Archambault, Annelies Zoomers

Annotation:

This book explores the gendered dimensions of recent land governance transformations across the globe in the wake of unprecedented pressures on land and natural resources. These complex contemporary forces are reconfiguring livelihoods and impacting women’s positions, their tenure security and well-being, and that of their families.

Bringing together fourteen empirical community case studies from around the world, the book examines governance transformations of land and land-based resources resulting from four major processes of tenure change: commercial land based investments, the formalization of customary tenure, the privatization of communal lands, and post-conflict resettlement and redistribution reforms. Each contribution carefully analyses the gendered dimensions of these transformations, exploring both the gender impact of the land tenure reforms and the social and political economy within which these reforms materialize. The cases provide important insights for decision makers to better promote and design an effective gender lens into land tenure reforms and natural resource management policies. (Summary from Taylor & Francis eBooks)

Table of Contents:
Introduction 
 
Part 1: From Farm to Firm: A Bad Deal for Women? 
 
1. Gender, Land and Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR  
 
2. Women and Benefit Sharing in Large Scale Land Deals: A Mining Case Study from Papua New Guinea  
 
3. A Women's World or the Return of Men? The Gendered Impacts of Residential Tourism in Costa Rica  
 
Part 2: From de Facto to de Jure: Formalizing Patriarchy in the Codification of Customary Tenure?  
 
4. Cameroon's Community Forests Program and Women's Income Generation from Non-Timber Forest Products: Negative impacts and potential solutions  
 
5. Gendered Mobilization: Women and the Politics of Indigenous Land Claims in Argentina  
 
6. Joint Land Titles in Madagascar: The gendered outcome of a "gender neutral" land tenure reform  
 
7. Land Titling and Women's Decision-Making in West Bengal  
 
Part 3: From Common Property to Private Holdings: A Tragedy for the Commoners?  
 
8. "One Doesn't Sell One's Parents:" Gendered Experiences of Shifting Tenure Regimes in the Agricultural Plain of the Sais in Morocco  
 
9. Aging Ejidos in the Wake of Neo-Liberal Reform: Livelihood Predicaments of Mexican Ejidatarias  
 
10. Women's Forestland Rights in the Collective Forestland Reforms in China: Fieldword Findings and Policy Recommendations  
 
11. Gendered Perspectives on Rangeland Privatization among the Maasai of Southern Kenya  
 
Part 4: From Conflict to Peace: An Opportunity for Gender Reconstruction?  
 
12. Reproducing Patriarchy on Resettled Lands: A lost opportunity in reconstituting women's land rights in the fast track land reform program in Zimbabwe  
 
13. Resigning Their Rights? Impediments to women's property ownership in Kosovo  
 
14. Strengthening Women's Land Rights while Recognizing Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Gender Budgeting in Ukraine: Theory and Practice

Citation:

Ivanina, Tatiana, and Svitlana Ievchenko, Nelli Karpets, Olena, Mykytas, Olena Ostapchuk, Natalia Riabushenko, Olga Zhukova, Oksana Yarosh. 2016. “Gender Budgeting in Ukraine: Theory and Practice.” UN Women.

Authors: Tatiana Ivanina, Svitlana Ievchenko, Nelli Karpets, Olena Mykytas, Olena Ostapchuk, Natalia Riabushenko, Olga Zhukova, Oksana Yarosh

Annotation:

"Introduction: Today the policy of gender equality is an important factor of global development and a fundamental human right. Most governments have committed to achieve the gender equality goals and implement the gender perspective in the public policy. To this end, numerous tools and approaches have been developed. Since 1995, a number of international organizations and agencies, including the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM, now UN Women), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) etc., has initiated the integration of a gender perspective to the budgets and thus contributed to the development of the concept and strategy of gender-responsive budgeting (GRB). The GRB concept was envisioned as a flexible mechanism of developing the targeted policies to ensure the equitable distribution of resources for different social groups, and it gives researchers and practitioners an opportunity to continuously expand its context, ensuring its functioning as an effective tool to ensure social inclusion and gender equality. Despite all the benefits of gender-responsive budgeting, this strategy is not common in Ukraine. The lack of a single national policy paper that would define the need for GRB implementation and provide a methodological basis for it impedes the introduction of the gender responsive budgeting. As part of the implementation of the Gender-Responsive Budgeting at the Local Level Project (Friedrich Ebert Foundation) and the Program Increasing Accountability in Financing for Gender Equality (UN Women), the domestic methodological approaches to introducing GRB were developed and tested locally. This Handbook contains a description of theoretical and practical approaches for implementing gender-responsive budgeting. The Annexes include a detailed description of the GRB methodology and methodology for costing gender equality. The authors hope that the proposed Handbook will be useful for gender experts and practitioners, officials and civil society activists implementing the gender equality policies at the state and local levels" (Ivanina et al., 2016, p. 5-6).

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, International Organizations Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2016

Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen

Citation:

Marshall, Katherine, and Susan Hayward, eds. 2015. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Authors: Katherine Marshall, Susan Hayward

Abstract:

Many women working for peace around the world are motivated by their religious beliefs, whether they work within secular or religious organizations. These women often find themselves sidelined or excluded from mainstream peacebuilding efforts. Secular organizations can be uncomfortable working with religious groups. Meanwhile, religious institutions often dissuade or even disallow women from leadership positions. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen shows how women determined to work for peace have faced these obstacles in ingenious ways—suggesting, by example, ways that religious and secular organizations might better include them in larger peacebuilding campaigns and make those campaigns more effective in ending conflict.
 
The first part of the book examines the particular dynamics of women of faith working toward peace within Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. The second part contains case studies of women peacebuilders in Africa, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, detailing how their faiths have informed their work, what roles religious institutions have played as they have moved forward, what accomplishments have resulted from their efforts, and what challenges remain. An appendix of interviews offers further perspectives from peacebuilders, both women and men.
 
Ultimately, Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding is a call to change the paradigm of peacebuilding inside and outside of the world’s faiths, to strengthen women’s abilities to work for peace and, in turn, improve the chances that major efforts to end conflicts around the world succeed. (United States Institute of Peace)
 

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Religious Women’s Invisibility: Obstacles and opportunities
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

2. Part I: Women Peacebuilders: Distinctive Approaches of Different Religious Traditions
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

3. Catholic Women Building Peace: Invisibility, Ideas and Institutions Expand Ideas
Maryann Casimano Love

4. Muslim Women’s Peacebuilding Initiatives
S. Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana

5. Creating Peaceful and Sustainable Communities through the Spiritual Empowerment of Buddhism and Hinduism
Dena Merriam

6. Jewish Women in Peacebuilding: Embracing Disagreement in the Pursuit of “Shalom”
Lucy Kurtzer-Ellenbogen

7. Part II Women and Faith in Action: Regional Case Studies
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

8. An All-Women Peacekeeping Group: Lessons From the Mindanao People’s Caucus
Margaret Jenkins

9. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Bilkisu Yusuf and Sr. Kathleen McGarvey

10. The Politics of Resistance: Muslim Women Negotiating Peace in Aceh, Indonesia
Etin Anwar

11. Women Reborn: A Case Study of the Intersection of Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in a Palestinian Village in Israel
Andrea K. Blanch, with coauthors Esther Hertzog and Ibtisam Mahameed

12. Women Citizens and Believers as Agents of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zilka Spahic Šiljak

13. Women Peacebuilders in Post-Coup Honduras: Their Spiritual Struggle to Transform Multiple Forms of Violence
Mónica A. Maher

14. Women, Religion and Trauma Healing: A Case in India
Anjana Dayal Prewitt

15. Strengthening Religious Women’s Work for Peace
Jacqueline Ogega and Katherine Marshall

16. Conclusion: Seeking Common Ground
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

17. Appendix: Scholars and Practitioners Engaged with Women, Religion, and Peace

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Nigeria, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Philippines

Year: 2015

Women and Weapons: Redressing the Gender Gap: A Ukrainian Response

Citation:

Sinovets, Polina. 2014. “Women and Weapons: Redressing the Gender Gap: A Ukrainian Response.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 70 (5): 21–23.

Author: Polina Sinovets

Abstract:

In nuclear war, women would suffer at least as much as men. But women tend to be underrepresented in fields—such as high-level politics, diplomacy, military affairs, and science and technology—that bear on nuclear policy. Authors from four countries—Salma Malik of Pakistan (2014), Polina Sinovets of Ukraine, Reshmi Kazi of India (2014), and Jenny Nielsen of Denmark (2014)discuss how women might gain greater influence on nuclear weapons policy and how their empowerment might affect disarmament and nonproliferation efforts.

Keywords: Carol Cohn, education, femininity, feminism, international organizations, masculinity, nuclear politics, nuclear weapons, soft power, women

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, International Organizations, Weapons /Arms Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2014

The Link Between Women’s Studies Programs and Grassroots Organizations in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian Territories: A Comparative Study

Citation:

Toman, Cheryl. 2006. “The Link Between Women’s Studies Programs and Grassroots Organizations in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian Territories: A Comparative Study.” Arab Studies Quarterly 28 (2): 55–67.

Author: Cheryl Toman

Abstract:

A primary goal of any women’s program is to create outreach opportunities beyond the university classroom in order to make a difference in one's community, whether at the local level or on the world stage. Thus, it is perhaps not a coincidence that strong Women's Studies programs have developed in Lebanon, the Balkans, and the Palestinian territories alongside successful women's activist groups. Together, they are able to work successfully despite the trials of functioning in conflict regions. This comparative study will analyze various women's organizations in these areas and their relationships with three Women's Studies programs in particular: The Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World in Beirut, the Center for Women's Studies in Zagreb, and the Women's Studies Program at Birzeit University in the West Bank. With a focus on work at the grassroots level as well as on research, these unique university programs in cooperation with women's associations not only aid women trying to survive and overcome the tremendous hardships of everyday life, but they are also playing an essential role, especially in the case of Lebanon and Palestine, in official policy making within their own governments. Lebanon, Croatia, and Palestine have been chosen for this comparison not only for their common ties to the Mediterranean, but also as home to multicultural peoples representing different stages of dealing with war and rebuilding. Although there are other conflict regions with women's activist groups that could be discussed here as well, Lebanon, Croatia, and Palestine stand not in particular since they are the only ones with well-established university programs in Women's Studies. The Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World in Lebanon and the Women's Studies Program at Birzeit University are the only two of their kind in the Arab world just as the Center for Women's Studies in Croatia is a model in Southeastern Europe.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Political Participation, Post-Conflict Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Croatia, Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2006

The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women

Citation:

Vijeyarasa, Ramona. 2012. “The Cinderella Syndrome: Economic Expectations, False Hopes and the Exploitation of Trafficked Ukrainian Women.” Women’s Studies International Forum 35 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.09.004.

Author: Ramona Vijeyarasa

Abstract:

Human trafficking is a multi-causal and multi-dimensional issue. The case of Ukraine evidences this complexity, with relevant factors spanning Ukraine's political history, its relations with the EU and the current state of socio-economic development. This paper focuses on the role of barriers to full and equal participation in the labour market for Ukrainian women as a driver of human trafficking. The purpose is to use qualitative data and secondary sources to assess the extent to which a causal relationship can be identified between labour market barriers and vulnerability to trafficking and trafficking-like conditions that result from the search for economic betterment abroad by irregular or undocumented means. Attention is also paid to the pull factor of images of migrant success abroad, an element which is often neglected in trafficking discussions. Consequently, labour market barriers are intimately connected to the lure of migration success in destination countries, whether true, exaggerated or entirely false.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Violence Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Ukraine

Year: 2012

Gender, Representation and Power-Sharing in Post-Conflict Institutions

Citation:

 Byrne, Siobhan and Allison McCulloch. 2012. "Gender, Representation and Power-Sharing in Post-Conflict Institutions" International Peacekeeping 19 (5): 565-580

Authors: Siobhan Bryne, Allison McCulloch

Abstract:

An emerging tension characterizes conflict resolution practice: promoting power-sharing between ethnic groups while simultaneously mandating women’s inclusion in peace processes and in post-conflict institutions. Scholars of ethnic conflict have not adequately theorized the gender implications of power-sharing, and practitioners have failed to implement mechanisms that would make power-sharing representative of constituencies beyond ethno-national cleavages. There is no substantive reason why the representation of women and ethnic groups should be in tension. Nevertheless, gender is often ignored in the power-sharing literature and gender-mainstreaming practices appear irreconcilable with power-sharing practice. Drawing on three cases of post-conflict power-sharing – Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, and Northern Ireland – this article identifies reasons why this tension remains in practice, especially the overriding emphasis in powersharing on ethno-nationalist elites and conflict protagonists.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Burundi, United Kingdom

Year: 2012

Pages

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