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Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women's Property Rights in Ecuador


Deere, Carmen Diana, Jacqueline Contreras, and Jennifer Twyman. 2o14.  “Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women’s Property Rights in Ecuador.” Latin American Perspectives 41 (1): 143–65.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Jacqueline Contreras, Jennifer Twyman


Patrimonial violence, defined minimally as the violation of women’s property rights, is increasingly recognized as a form of gender violence, along with physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Research in Ecuador on the extent to which women are aware of their property rights and the situations in which patrimonial violence is most likely to occur shows that, while most women seem to be aware of certain fundamentals, there are many misconceptions, particularly regarding the status of individual property. Women’s lack of legal knowledge often undermines their ability to obtain their rightful share of the division of property upon separation, divorce, or widowhood. Moreover, patrimonial violence is often aggravated by the presence of other forms of violence against women.

Keywords: gender violence, women's property rights, assets, Ecuador

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Property Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Accountability of Private Military and Security Contractors in the International Legal Regime


Huskey, Kristine A. 2012. Accountability of Private Military and Security Contractors in the International Legal Regime. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(3): 193-212.

Author: Kristine Huskey


The rapidly growing presence of private military and security contractors (PMSCs) in armed conflict and post-conflict situations in the last decade brought corresponding incidents of serious misconduct by PMSC personnel. The two most infamous events one involving the firm formerly known as Blackwater and the other involving Titan and CACl engendered scrutiny of available mechanisms for criminal and civil accountability of the individuals whose misconduct caused the harm. Along a parallel track, scholars and policymakers began examining the responsibility of states and international organizations for the harm that occurred. Both approaches have primarily focused on post-conduct accountability of the individuals who caused the harm, of the state in which the harm occurred, or of the state or organization that hired the PMSC whose personnel caused the harm. Less attention, however, has been paid to the idea of pre-conduct accountability for PMSCs and their personnel. A broad understanding of accountability for PMSCs and their personnel encompasses not only responsibility for harm caused by conduct, but responsibility for hiring, hosting, and monitoring these entities, as well as responsibility to the victims of the harm. This article provides a comprehensive approach for analyzing the existing international legal regime, and whether and to what extent the legal regime provides accountability for PMSCs and their personnel. It does so by proposing a practical construct of three phases based on PMSC operations Contracting, In-the-Field, and Post-Conduct with which to assess the various bodies of international law.


Keywords: private military and security companies, accountability, international human rights law, International Humanitarian Law, Montreux Document, International Criminal Law, U.N. Draft Convention on Private Military and Security Contractors

Topics: International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law IHL, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua


Cupples, Julie. 2005. “Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 37 (2): 305–22.

Author: Julie Cupples


Based on qualitative research conducted in 1999 and 2001 with a group of single mothers in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, this paper examines the contradictory impacts of neoliberalism on work, based on the understanding that economic restructuring can generate both crisis and a space for changes in gender identities. By focusing on the broader picture of women's work and on the intersections between paid and unpaid work, it discusses what happens to these intersections in times of intense political and economic change. Despite the hardships caused by neoliberalism, it appears that work is a site in which gender ideologies can be challenged. The paper has four main sections. First, it explores the ways in which certain cultural processes are intensified under neoliberalism which affects the relationship between constructions of masculinity and femininity. Second, it assesses the impact of neoliberalism on domestic work and the implications of this for GAD (gender and development) understandings of the double burden and of how the balance of women's paid and unpaid work changes under neoliberalism. Third, it examines the ways in which hegemonic understandings of femininities and motherhood and revolutionary legacies can be resistant to the neoliberal present. Finally, it discusses how work under neoliberalism can be a site of female empowerment or self-esteem.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2005

¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador


Deere, Carmen D, and Jennifer Twyman. “¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador.” Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 11, no. 3 (2014): 425–440.

Authors: Carmen D. Deere, Jennifer Twyman


Este trabajo investiga si las mujeres propietarias de parcelas participan en las decisiones agrícolas sobre ellas. Con base en una muestra nacional de Ecuador, el análisis demuestra que la gran mayoría de mujeres dueñas participan activamente en la conducción de sus parcelas, sean éstas propiedades de ellas de manera individual o en conjunto con su pareja. También revela que hay diferencias en el nivel de participación de las mujeres, dependiendo de su estado civil o situación marital (si son casadas o unidas en comparación con jefas de hogar solteras, separadas, divorciadas o viudas) y de la forma de la propiedad. Además, su participación varía según la decisión agrícola bajo consideración. De todos modos, nuestro análi­sis conduce a una conclusión sobresaliente: los datos censales proporcionan una visión distorsionada de la agricultura fa­miliar porque no se toma en cuenta que las decisiones agrí­colas son tomadas frecuentemente por la pareja y conllevan a una subestimación de la participación de las mujeres casadas/unidas como agricultoras. (Abstract from original source)
This study investigates whether women landowners participate in the agricultural decisions about their plots. Based on a national sample from Ecuador, the analysis shows that the large majority of women owners participate actively in the conduction of their plots, whether they are their property individually or jointly with their couple. It also reveals that there are differences in the level of participation of women, depending on their marital status (whether they are married or united, in comparison to heads of households who are single, separated, divorced or widows) and the form of property. Also, their participation varies depending on the agricultural decision under consideration. In any case, our analysis leads to an outstanding conclusion: the census data provide a distorted vision of family agriculture because they do not take into account that agricultural decisions are frequently made by the couple, and they lead to an underestimation of the participation of women married/united as agricultural producers. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Violencia de género hacia mujeres del Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra


Carrillo Franco, Blanca Estela, Emma Zapata Martelo, and Verónica Vázquez García. “Violencia de género hacia mujeres del Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra.” Política y cultura, no. 32 (2009): 127–147.

Authors: Blance Estela Carillo Franco, Emma Zapata Martelo, Verónica Vázquez García


En este artículo se aborda la represión que sufrieron por parte del Estado las mujeres integrantes del Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra (FPDT), cuando se movilizaron para defender sus tierras. Mediante reconstrucción y análisis de las memorias que ellas guardan del suceso, se propone reflexionar cómo el Estado utiliza la violencia de género como estrategia para frenar la participación de las mujeres. Se parte de información testimonial y observación participante en espacios organizativos del FPDT para explicar cómo la intervención en este movimiento las ha llevado a sufrir violencia de género y tortura sexualizada. Asimismo, se expone cómo pudieron superar la experiencia que implicó la persecución política hacia el movimiento. (Abstract from original source)

This article analyzes the way in which the female members of the social movement Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra (FPDT) have experienced state violence. Through oral testimonies and field work into organizative spaces of the FPDT, we show how women’s political participation has helped them overcome the experience of gender violence and political persecution, including sexual violation and torture. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Torture, Sexual Torture Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2009

Reforma agraria: Representaciones de género y política de tierras en Colombia


Sañudo Pazos, Maria Fernanda. “Reforma agraria: Representaciones de género y política de tierras en Colombia.” Revista Interdisciplinaria de Estudios de Género de El Colegio de México 2, no. 3 (2016): 102–125.


Author: María Fernanda Sañudo Pazos


A través del análisis de los procesos de negociación para la incorporación del género en la política de tierras en Colombia, en específico de la Ley 30 de 1988 y de la Ley 160 de 1994, se evidencia cómo operaron las representaciones de género que encarnaron diferentes agentes (organizaciones campesinas mixtas, organizaciones de mujeres campesinas, funcionarios y funcionarias estatales), en el posicionamiento de los intereses de las mujeres rurales frente al acceso a la tierra y en los logros que alcanzaron. De manera más precisa, se visibiliza cómo las construcciones y elaboraciones simbólicas sobre los roles de hombres y mujeres campesinos que los agentes encarnan han sido determinantes en el tipo de reconocimiento, formal y de hecho, del derecho a la propiedad de la tierra. Desde una perspectiva bourdiana se considera que quienes intervinieron en la negociación están constituidos por habitus, de los que las representaciones de género son expresiones. Éstas, además de estar estrechamente conectadas con la ubicación socioeconómica y cultural de los sujetos, se configuran como uno de los recursos mediante los cuales los agentes dotan de significado a la realidad social. Y son, también, guía de la percepción y de las acciones que se realizan en un campo específico: el de la política de tierras. En el marco del estudio, dicho campo corresponde a la red de instituciones con prácticas y discursos específicos cuyo objetivo, en momentos coyunturales, ha sido el de regular el acceso a la tierra y los conflictos aparejados a éste. (Abstract from original source)
This article analyses the role and operation of gender representations regarding, on the one hand, the definition and allocation of women’s interests in relation to access to land processes and, on the other, their actual achievements in this respect. For this purpose, it examines the gender representations displayed by peasants’ organizations, women peasants’ organizations and civil servants during the negotiation processes for including a gender perspective into the Colombian land policy. In this regard, special attention is given to Law 30 of 1988 and Law 160 of 1994. More specifically, the article argues that the symbolic constructions of the role of peasant women and men have significantly determined the kind of formal and de facto recognition of land ownership rights. From a Bourdieun perspective, it is maintained that those participating in the land policy negotiation where constituted by habitus, of which gender representations are expressions. Besides being closely connected to the socioeconomic and cultural location of the subjects, such representations function as one of the resources whereby agents provide meaning to social reality. In this sense, the article reads the land policy in Colombia as a Bourdieun field where gender representations guided both the perception and the actions taking place there. Such field is organized into a grid of institutional practices and discourses seeking to circumstantially regulate land and land conflicts. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana


Martínez Montenegro, Isnel, and Mónica Baeza Leiva. “Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana.” Revista Prolegómenos Derechos y Valores 20, no. 39 (2017): 29–38.


Author: Isnel Martínez Montenegro, Mónica Baeza Leiva


El presente artículo indaga sobre los enfoques de género en el papel que desempeña la mujer en la industria agraria, y sobre el tratamiento que se le da a este tema en la legislación vigente sobre la herencia de la tierra en Cuba. Se analizan aquí los avances y retos con respecto a las mujeres en la agricultura cubana y se expone la norma cubana y sus aspectos contradictorios, haciendo una comparación con la situación actual en Latinoamérica. La mujer ha logrado desarrollar tareas imprescindibles en la industria agraria cubana, sin embargo, no en todos los casos estos avances se corresponden con las medidas adoptadas ni están dirigidos a la consecución de la igualdad como objetivo fundamental. (Abstract from original source)
This article investigates the gender perspective in the role performed by women in the agricultural industry, and the treatment given to this topic in the current legislation on the inheritance of land in Cuba. Progress and challenges regarding women in Cuban agriculture are analyzed here, and it is exposed the Cuban standard and its contradictory aspects, making a comparison with the current situation in Latin America. The woman has managed to develop essential tasks in the Cuban agricultural industry; however, not in all cases these advances correspond to the measures adopted or are aimed at the achievement of equality as a fundamental objective. (English provided by original source)
A presente artigo indaga sobre os enfoques de gênero no papel que desempenha a mulher na indústria agrária e sobre o tratamento que é dado a este tema na legislação vigente sobre a herança da terra em Cuba. Aqui foram analisados os avanços e desafios com respeito às mulheres na agricultura cubana e foi exposta a norma cubana e seus aspectos contraditórios, fazendo uma comparação com a situação atual na América Latina. A mulher conseguiu desenvolver tarefas imprescindíveis na indústria agrária cubana, porém, nem em todos os casos estes avanços correspondem a medidas adotadas nem estão dirigidos à consecução da igualdade como objetivo fundamental. (Portuguese provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Cuba

Year: 2017

Entre el despojo y la restitución: reflexiones sobre género, justicia y retorno en la costa caribe colombiana


Meertens, Donny. “Entre el despojo y la restitución: reflexiones sobre género, justicia y retorno en la costa caribe colombiana.” Revista Colombiana de Antropología 52, no. 2 (2016): 45–71.


Author: Donny Meertens


Este artículo explora, a través de un lente de género centrado en la relación mujer-tierra, los múltiples discursos de justicia que entran en juego en los contextos de despojo y restitución de tierras en Colombia. El despojo de tierras es más que un asunto material, pues tiene otras dimensiones (sociales y simbólicas), todas marcadas por el género, las cuales se presentan nuevamente en la restitución. Las investigaciones realizadas en el Caribe colombiano sugieren que el modelo legal de restitución, centrado en lo material, tiene efectos limitados de justicia ante las experiencias subjetivas de las mujeres que retornan al campo como propietarias de tierra. Lo anterior se debe a la difícil reconstrucción de las dimensiones sociales y simbólicas de la restitución en los territorios posviolencia, en términos de restauración de la dignidad, el sentido de pertenencia y la legitimidad social. (Abstract from original source)
This article explores, through a gender lens focused on women and land, the multiple discourses on justice at stake in the contexts of both violent land dispossession and land restitution in Colombia. Land dispossession is more than a material affair and its multiple dimensions (social, symbolic), all with a gender mark, are also present in the restitution process. Research carried out in Colombia’s Caribbean region suggests that the legal model of land restitution, focused on the material aspects, has only limited success in terms of justice as it does not sufficiently address the subjective experiences of the women who return to the countryside as formal landowners. This is due to the difficult reconstruction of the social and symbolic dimensions of restitution in “postviolent” territories, in terms of the restoration of dignity, sense of belonging, and social entitlement. (English translation provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Domesticando el Despojo: Palma Africana, Acaparamiento de Tierras y Género en el Bajo Aguán, Honduras


León Araya, Andrés. “Domesticando el Despojo: Palma Africana, Acaparamiento de Tierras y Género en el Bajo Aguán, Honduras.” Revista Colombiana de Antropología 53, no. 1 (2017): 151–185.

Author: Andrés León Araya


Con base en el testimonio de vida de una familia campesina, este artículo explora la contrarreforma agraria, entendida como un proceso de acumulación primitiva, que se llevó a cabo a principios de los noventa en Honduras. Más específicamente, se busca recuperar la vivencia compartida de muchas mujeres campesinas a través de una perspectiva etnográfica y de género que proporcione ciertas luces sobre cómo opera el despojo, en tanto proceso permanente y constitutivo del capitalismo. (Abstract from original source)
From the perspective of a peasant family, this article explores the agrarian counter reform that took place in Honduras in the early 1990s, as a process of primitive accumulation. Specifically, it attempts to recuperate the shared experience of many peasant women through an ethnographic and gendered perspective, which sheds some lights on how dispossession, defined as a permanent and constitutive process of capitalism, operates. (English translation provided by original source)

Topics: Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Honduras

Year: 2017

The Effects of Gender on Climate Change Knowledge and Concern in the American Public


McCright, Aaron M. 2010. “The Effects of Gender on Climate Change Knowledge and Concern in the American Public.” Population and Environment 32 (1): 66–87.

Author: Aaron M. McCright


This study tests theoretical arguments about gender differences in scientific knowledge and environmental concern using 8 years of Gallup data on climate change knowledge and concern in the US general public. Contrary to expectations from scientific literacy research, women convey greater assessed scientific knowledge of climate change than do men. Consistent with much existing sociology of science research, women underestimate their climate change knowledge more than do men. Also, women express slightly greater concern about climate change than do men, and this gender divide is not accounted for by differences in key values and beliefs or in the social roles that men and women differentially perform in society. Modest yet enduring gender differences on climate change knowledge and concern within the US general public suggest several avenues for future research, which are explored in the conclusion. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: gender, climate change, Knowledge, Concern


Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2010


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