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Sudan

The Gender-Energy Nexus in Eastern and Southern Africa

Citation:

Mihyo, Paschal B, and Truphena E Mukuna. 2015. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Eastern and Southern Africa. Addis Ababa: The Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA).

Authors: Paschal B Mihyo, Truphena E Mukuna

Annotation:

“The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Eastern and Southern Africa have been at the forefront to developing new energy policies and programmes aimed at reaching the UN goal of Ensuring Access to Clean Energy for All by 2030. In the year 2006, the East African Community passed the EAC Strategy to Scale Up Access to Modern Energy Services, committing its Member States to reach the UN goal of "access to all" by 2030. The Inter-governmental Authority for Development adopted its Environmental and Natural Resources Policy in 2007 which includes issues of renewable energy. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa launched its Model Energy Programme in 2012, followed the same year by its comprehensive baselines database on renewable resources covering all its Member States. In the year 2009, the African Union General Assembly at its 12th Ordinary Session adopted the Policy on "Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Africa". The regional policies have been domesticated by Member Sates of the RECs. Although their targets are very ambitious, implementation programmes launched at national level are robust and producing results. Both in the policies and implementation programmes, gender issues have, however, not featured prominently. Noting this deficit, the Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa called for researchers to assess the extent to which energy policies in Eastern and Southern Africa have taken gender issues on board.
 
“This book is the product of that project. It has ten chapters that investigated the gender-energy nexus in Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Swaziland, Sudan and Kenya. The book will prove useful to all policy makers, researchers and analysts who may be interested in strengthening the gender content of the programmes as we move towards 2030. We believe it triggers and helps policy makers and researchers to create platforms to use its findings, and those of others, to see how in gender terms those at the bottom of the energy access pyramid can be factored into these programmes, to make sure they are not left behind.” (Summary from African Books Collective)

 

Table of Contents:
Introduction
Paschal B. Mihyo

1. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Zimbabwe
Charles Mutasa

2. Gender-Energy Nexus in Ethiopia: An Analytical Review
Alemu Tolemariam and Dejene Mamo

3. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Tanzania: Assessing Rural Electrification in the Context of Gender Mainstreaming among Women
Henry M. Kigodi and Japhace Poncian

4. Towards a Gender Transformative Agenda? A Critique of Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Policy in Kenya
Moses A. Osiro

5. Community Perspectives on the Demand, Availability and Accessibility of Energy Resources in Swaziland: A Case Study of Sinceni on Deforestation
Londiwe D. Hlophe and Musa M.A. Dube

6. Gender Equity and Household Decision-Making in Alternative Energy Technologies Adoption: A Case of Access to Biogas Technology in Central Tanzania
Anna Wawa

7. Cooking Fuel in Sudan: Utilisation Patterns, Health Hazards and Cleaner Fuel Adoption
Yahia O. Adam

8. Turning Challenges into Opportunities in Household Energy Demand: Women Tiftif Makers in Yeka Sub-city Addis Ababa
Betelhem Ephrem

9. Gender-Sensitive Clean Energy Technologies for Sustainable Development amongst Pastorialist Maasai Communities, Kenya
Truphena E. Mukuma

10. Bridging the Gender Gap in Access to Energy in East Africa: A Needs-Based Approach
Paschal B Mihyo

11. Conclusions and Recommendations
Truphena E. Mukuma

 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan

Citation:

Stork, Adrienne, Cassidy Travis, and Silja Halle. 2015. “Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1080/10402659.2015.1037617.

Authors: Adrienne Stork, Cassidy Travis, Silja Halle

Annotation:

"This essay builds on the 2013 report and investigates how the key issues of gender and natural resources play out in two different conflict-affected settings. Based on UNEP’s field experiences in Côte d’Ivoire and Darfur, the first section discusses the findings of a gender analysis conducted as part of a Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment of Côte d’Ivoire in 2013, and identifies concrete entry points for addressing the identified risks and opportunities. The second part examines how gender considerations have been incorporated into UNEP’s activities in the Wadi El Ku region of Darfur in Sudan, providing tangible examples of how these issues can be taken into account in ground-level programming" (Stork et al., 2015, p. 148-49). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Sudan

Year: 2015

Gender Relations, Livelihood Security And Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees In Uganda: The Case Of Sudanese Women In Rhino Camp And Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements

Citation:

Mulumba, Deborah. 2005. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health Among Women Refugees in Uganda: The Case of Sudanese Women in Rhino Camp and Kiryandongo Refugee Settlements. PhD thesis, Wageningen University.

Author: Deborah Mulumba

Abstract:

Armed conflict and civil wars are the main cause of refugees in the Great Lakes Region of Eastern Africa. Forced migration into alien refugee settings exacerbates gender inequalities and increases the vulnerability of women and girls. The main objective of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among refugees in Uganda with a particular focus on women. The research design was descriptive and exploratory in nature and the methodology was primarily qualitative. The main findings were that refugee policies and gender relations have an immense influence on human reproduction, reproductive health and livelihood security. Although UNHCR has formulated gender sensitive policies, their implementation in rural settlements remains gender neutral. In addition, the strategic needs of women refugees are not catered for. The study concludes that there is a discrepancy between the international and national policies and what is on the ground. (ResearchGate)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Background and Rationale for the Study
2. Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives
3. Research Questions and Methodology
4. The History and Management of Refugees and Displacement in Uganda
5. The International and National Health Policies
6. Ministries, Organizations and Programmes Dealing in Reproductive Health Issues
7. The Study Area and ‘Host Environment’
8. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Rhino Camp Refugee Settlement 
9. Gender Relations, Livelihood Security and Reproductive Health: Discussion of Findings and Experiences from Kiryandongo Refugee Settlement
10. Conclusions

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2005

Rebuilding With or Without Women?

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2012. “Rebuilding With or Without Women?: Gendered Violence in Postconflict Peace and Reconstruction” In The Political Economy of Violence Against Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Chapter 8 examines the spike of sexual and gender-based violence in postconflict and peace-building environments. Despite recent UN Security Council resolutions, the invisibility of this violence against women during and after conflict marginalizes women in postconflict state-building and economic reconstruction processes. This economic and political marginalization of women exacerbates violence after conflict and hinders these peace-building efforts. The first part of the chapter applies the political economy approach of the book to reveal how gendered peacekeeping economies exacerbate violence against women. It critiques the prioritization of law and order over social and economic opportunities. The second part examines the role of women in peace-building decision making and economic reconstruction in places as diverse as East Timor; Aceh, Indonesia; Mindanao province in the Philippines; Iraq; Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; the Congo; and Darfur. The chapter concludes by critically assessing two approaches to postconflict prevention of violence against women: the “good practice” of placing women peacekeepers in postconflict zones and the role of reparations in ensuring women's equal access to postconflict development.

 

Keywords: post conflict, peacekeeping economies, reparations, peacebuilding, economic reconstruction

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iraq, Philippines, Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

Transforming Displaced Women in Sudan: Politics and the Body in a Squatter Settlement

Citation:

Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. 2009. Transforming Displaced Women in Sudan: Politics and the Body in a Squatter Settlement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Author: Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf

Abstract:

Over twenty years of civil war in predominantly Christian Southern Sudan has forced countless people from their homes. Transforming Displaced Women in Sudan examines the lives of women who have forged a new community in a shantytown on the outskirts of Khartoum, the largely Muslim, heavily Arabized capital in the north of the country.

Sudanese-born anthropologist Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf delivers a rich ethnography of this squatter settlement based on personal interviews with displaced women and careful observation of the various strategies they adopt to reconstruct their lives and livelihoods. Her findings debunk the myth that these settlements are utterly abject, and instead she discovers a dynamic culture where many women play an active role in fighting for peace and social change. Abusharaf also examines the way women’s bodies are politicized by their displacement, analyzing issues such as religious conversion, marriage, and female circumcision.

An urgent dispatch from the ongoing humanitarian crisis in northeastern Africa, Transforming Displaced Women in Sudan will be essential for anyone concerned with the interrelated consequences of war, forced migration, and gender inequality.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2009

Resilience in South Sudanese Women: Hope for Daughters of the Nile

Citation:

Wanga-Odhiambo, Godriver. 2013. Resilience in South Sudanese Women: Hope for Daughters of the Nile. Lanham: Lexington Books.

Author: Godriver Wanga-Odhiambo

Abstract:

This book traces the origin and developments of civil wars in Southern Sudan and how they impacted the female population. It shows how these refugee South Sudanese women dealt with homelessness in host countries through various coping strategies, and their eventual resettlement in USA where again they experienced cultural collisions. Finally, Resilience in South Sudanese Women traces their settlement in America, the challenges they experienced, and how they overcame them through determination and resilience. (Abstract from WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. "Historical Background to Sudan's Civil War"

2. "Movement Beyond Borders"

3. "Settling In: Self-Settlement in Nairobi"

4. "Providing for Refugees"

5. "Coping Strategies: Establishment of Social Networks"

6. "Behold the Promised Land: America"

7. "Sudanese Women: The Real Heroines" 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America Countries: Sudan, United States of America

Year: 2013

Lost Boys, Invisible Girls: Stories of Sudanese Marriages across Borders

Citation:

Grabska, Katarzyna. 2010. “Lost Boys, Invisible Girls: Stories of Sudanese Marriages across Borders.” Gender, Place & Culture 17 (4): 479–97. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2010.485839.

Author: Katarzyna Grabska

Abstract:

Forced migration challenges and changes gender relations. The transnational activities of refugees resettled in the West create gender asymmetries among those who stay behind. This article explores the transnational marriages of young southern Sudanese women (‘invisible girls’), who either stayed in Sudan or remained in refugee camps in Kenya, to Sudanese men who were resettled to America, Canada or Australia (‘lost boys’). Incorporating gender as a relational category into the analysis of transnational practices that migrants and refugees engage in is important. The article argues that there is a need to put feminist analysis at the centre of transnational processes resulting from (forced) migration. It looks at the connections between different geographical locations, the impacts of the migration of young refugee men on bridewealth and marriage negotiations and the gender consequences for young women, men and their families. It is argued that transnational activities, such as marriage, contest, reconfigure and reinforce the culturally inscribed gender norms and practices in and across places. Transnational marriage results in ambiguous benefits for women (and men) in accessing greater freedoms. Anthropological analyses of marriage need a geographical focus on the transnational fields in which they occur. The article seeks to deepen understanding of the nuanced gendered consequences of transnationalism. It shows how gender analysis of actions taken across different locations can contribute to the theorisation of transnational studies of refugees and migrants.

Keywords: transnational marriage, transnationalism, refugee displacement, gender, Sudan, migration

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Households Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2010

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections

Citation:

Lachenmann, Gudrun, and Petra Dannecker. 2008. Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies: Gendered Spaces and Translocal Connections. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Authors: Gudrun Lachenmann, Petra Dannecker

Abstract:

Negotiating Development in Muslim Societies explores the negotiation processes of global development concepts such as poverty alleviation, human rights, and gender equality. It focuses on three countries that are undergoing different Islamisation processes: Senegal, Sudan, and Malaysia. While much has been written about the hegemonic production and discursive struggle of development concepts globally, this book analyzes the negotiation of these development concepts locally and translocally. Lachenmann and Dannecker present empirically grounded research to show that, although women are instrumentalized in different ways for the formation of an Islamic identity of a nation or group, they are at the same time important actors and agents in the processes of negotiating the meaning of development, restructuring of the public sphere, and transforming the societal gender order.

(Lexington Books)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Malaysia, Senegal, Sudan

Year: 2008

The Assessment and Mapping of Initiatives on Women Protection and Livelihood Support in South Darfur

Citation:

Aletegani, Abass Y., Bashir, Nagla Mohamed, and Mohamed Ahamad Nour. 2012. “The Assessment and Mapping of Initiatives on Women Protection and Livelihood Support in South Darfur.” In The Role of Women in Promoting Peace and Development, edited by Nicklas Svensson. 149-160. Lund, Sweden: Media-Tryck Lund University

Authors: Abass Y. Aletegani, Nagla Mohamed Bashir, Mohamed Ahamad Nour

Abstract:

This research assesses women’s need of protection and livelihood in South Darfur’s IDPs camps and host communities, and makes a database on the organizations (national and international) and government bodies working with livelihood and protection. The humanitarian crisis in Darfur leaves women more vulnerable to high rates of poverty, violence (domestic violence, sexual gender-based violence), insecurity and displacement. Many studies about the effects of war on women have been carried out but most of them focus on IDP populations and do not include the host communities, although they contain some of the IDPs. The objectives of the need assessment were to quantify IDP women’s needs around their human rights protection and livelihoods in South Darfur and to establish a database on institutions working on women’s protection and livelihood needs including national and international agencies, women’s organizations, and government bodies in South Darfur. This needs assessment uses participatory rapid assessment techniques, applying gender analysis tools and processes and combines qualitative and quantitative tools (interviews, focus group discussions, story telling, participant observations, active listening). The first part of the research concerned the training of the team in holding field surveys, how the team deals with IDPs inside the camp to give the right information. The result showed that women in IDPs camps practice different income-generating activities (IGAs) to earn money. They need more training in IGAs and in new forms of work that let their products compete in the market and earn more money. Regarding protection, women need more training programs in human rights and violence. Most women need to see that reporting violence against them has a result. This report is the result of a study undertaken by a team of academic staff from the Peace Studies and Community Development Centre, invited and supported by UNIFEM and the University of Nyala in 2007 and comparing and assessing the situation in 2011.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugee/IDP Camps, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Livelihoods, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Sudan

Year: 2012

Building a State That Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building

Citation:

Castillejo, Claire. 2011. ‘Building a State That Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building’, March, Working Paper. Madrid: Fride. http://fride.org/download/WP107_Building_state.pdf

Author: Claire Castillejo

Abstract:

This working paper presents key findings from a joint FRIDE-ODI research project that investigated the impact of state building on women’s citizenship. The project was developed in response to gaps in the current state building work. On one hand, theoretical models on state building are elaborated at an abstract level that makes gender power relations invisible. For example, these tend to model the relationship between state, elites and an undisaggregated “society” without asking who is represented within each group, who participates in state-society negotiations, and whose expectations and demands are expressed within these negotiations. On the other hand, although donor policies do stress that state building should be an inclusive process, they are vague on how this – and specifically the inclusion of women - is to be achieved.

The project involved research in five post-conflict countries, Burundi, Guatemala, Kosovo, Sierra Leone and Sudan. It investigated three central questions: What role do women play in state building? How do state building processes affect women’s political participation? How do state building processes affect women’s rights?

The findings highlighted that post-conflict contexts do provide new opportunities for women to mobilise. However, their ability to influence state building processes is limited both by structural barriers and by opposition from elites. While women have made some significant gains in terms of formal equality and inclusion, informal patterns of power and resource allocation have been much harder to shift. It appears that gender inequalities in these contexts are innately linked to the underlying political settlement, including the balance of power between formal and customary authorities. It is therefore critical that donors address gender as a fundamentally political issue. 

 

Keywords: post conflict reconstruction, women, gender, state-building, integration

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Burundi, Guatemala, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Sudan

Year: 2011

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