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Sierra Leone

Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone

Citation:

White, Aimee. 2008. "Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone." M.A., Canada: Dalhousie University (Canada).

Author: Aimee White

Annotation:

Summary:
Post-conflict countries will not achieve sustainable peace without the inclusion and participation of women in peacebuilding processes. In Sierra Leone, women were heavily involved in bringing about an end to the 1991--2002 conflict, but yet were largely excluded from political and decision-making processes in post-conflict context. The physical and structural gender-based violence women experienced throughout the conflict and the ways in which women took the lead in addressing these issues in the post-conflict context demonstrates women's essential but formally unrecognized role in peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. The post-genocide context in Rwanda provides a comparison for the ways in which women have seized the socio-political space opened up by conflict to challenge gender inequality and take an active role in the political structures of the country. There are a number of international policy frameworks to complement this process in post-conflict countries but international and national rhetoric must translate into concrete action. (Summary from original)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Rwanda, Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Empowerment Boom or Bust? Assessing Women’s Post-Conflict Empowerment Initiatives

Citation:

MacKenzie, Megan. 2009. “Empowerment Boom or Bust? Assessing Women’s Post-Conflict Empowerment Initiatives.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22 (2): 199–215.

Author: Megan MacKenzie

Abstract:

Over the past decade, the term ‘empowerment’ has been generously employed and woefully ill-defined. In particular, women's empowerment has been embraced by such a vast number of development actors that it appears to be a unifying mission within development. Despite the boom in women's empowerment initiatives, there remains little critical analysis of the use of empowerment in general, and the perceived success or failures of specific empowerment initiatives. Using the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process in Sierra Leone as a case study, this paper examines how reintegration was described as a source of empowerment for women. Drawing from interviews and analysis of related policy discourses, it is argued that, rather than representing a radical shift in development approaches towards more inclusive and representative policies, empowerment projects are shaped by neoliberal ideas such as individualism, responsibility and economic order and carry implicit, gendered and disciplining messages about appropriate social behavior. (Abstract from original)

Topics: DDR, Development, International Financial Institutions, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

Large-Scale Land Deals in Sierra Leone at the Intersection of Gender and Lineage

Citation:

Ryan, Caitlin. 2017. “Large-Scale Land Deals in Sierra Leone at the Intersection of Gender and Lineage.” Third World Quarterly, 1–18. doi:10.1080/01436597.2017.1350099.

Author: Caitlin Ryan

Abstract:

There is wide engagement with large-scale land deals in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly from the perspectives of development and international political economy. Recently, scholars have increasingly pointed to a gendered lacuna in this literature. Engagement with gender tends to focus on potential differential impacts for men and women, and it also flags the need for more detailed empirical research of specific land deals. This paper draws from ethnographic data collected in Northern Sierra Leone to support the claim that the impacts of land deals are highly gendered, but it also argues that lineage in a land-owning family and patronage intersect with these gendered impacts. This data supports my claim that analysis of land deals should start from an understanding of the context-dependent, complex arrays of power and marginality. Such a starting point allows for a wider and ‘messier’ range of impacts and experiences to emerge.

Keywords: land deals, Sierra Leone, gender patronage

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2017

“We Have No Voice for That”: Land Rights, Power, and Gender in Rural Sierra Leone

Citation:

Millar, Gearoid. 2015. “We Have No Voice for That”: Land Rights, Power, and Gender in Rural Sierra Leone.” Journal of Human Rights 14 (4): 45–462. 

Author: Gearoid Millar

Abstract:

Much attention has recently focused on the lease of land throughout the global south to nations and corporations in the global north. It is argued that local people's access to and relationships with the land are being redefined and that large segments of these populations are being denied their rights to land with potentially detrimental effects for their livelihoods and food security. This article explores one such project in Sierra Leone, focusing specifically on the experiences of rural women. The data illustrate how these women experience this 40,000 hectare bioenergy project as disempowering and disruptive. While these women may have the formal right to participate in land decisions and project benefits, they had no such right in practice. I argue here that this outcome is the result of compound disempowerment that results from the complex interaction of indigenous social and cultural dynamics and the supposedly gender-neutral logic of liberal economics.

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, International Organizations, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2015

National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone

Citation:

Basini, Helen, and Caitlin Ryan. 2016. “National Action Plans as an Obstacle to Meaningful Local Ownership of UNSCR 1325 in Liberia and Sierra Leone.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 390-403.

Authors: Helen Basini, Caitlin Ryan

Abstract:

National Action Plans (NAPs) have been hailed as the preferential mode of implementing United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 at a national level. In recent years, member states, especially post-conflict member states, have been heeding the calls of the United Nations to develop their own National Action Plans. However, there has been limited assessment of whether or not National Action Plans are beneficial to women in post-conflict states. Using evidence from field research in Liberia and Sierra Leone, this article argues that, despite the intent to increase national ownership of 1325 in post-conflict states, National Action Plans are ineffective at creating meaningful local ownership because they are driven by a bureaucratic approach to peacebuilding. Furthermore, implementation of National Action Plans in post-conflict states is hampered by a variety of factors, such as lack of capacity and lack of political will. Finally, we conclude that National Action Plans also do a disservice to the hard work and dedication of local women’s organisations.

Keywords: gender, Liberia, National Action Plans, peace, post-conflict, security, Sierra Leone, UNSCR 1325, women

Topics: Gender, Women, conflict, Governance, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia, Sierra Leone

Year: 2016

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

Citation:

Graham, Jay P., Mitsuaki Hirai, and Seung-Sup Kim. 2016. “An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” PLOS ONE 11 (6): e0155981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155981.

Authors: Jay P. Graham, Mitsuaki Hirai, Seung-Sup Kim

Abstract:

Background

It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times.

Objectives

This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries.

Methods

We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries.

Results

Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs).

Conclusion

In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe

Year: 2016

Empowerment Boom or Bust? Assessing Women's Post-Conflict Empowerment Initiatives

Citation:

MacKenzie, Megan. 2009. “Empowerment Boom or Bust? Assessing Women's Post-Conflict Empowerment Initiatives” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22 (2): 199-215. 

Author: Megan MacKenzie

Abstract:

Over the past decade, the term ‘empowerment’ has been generously employed and woefully ill-defined. In particular, women’s empowerment has been embraced by such a vast number of development actors that it appears to be a unifying mission within development. Despite the boom in women’s empowerment initiatives, there remains little critical analysis of the use of empowerment in general, and the perceived success or failures of specific empowerment initiatives. Using the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process in Sierra Leone as a case study, this paper examines how reintegration was described as a source of empowerment for women. Drawing from interviews and analysis of related policy discourses, it is argued that, rather than representing a radical shift in development approaches towards more inclusive and representative policies, empowerment projects are shaped by neoliberal ideas such as individualism, responsibility and economic order and carry implicit, gendered and disciplining messages about appropriate social behaviour.

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Development, Gender, Women, Gender Roles Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

Precious Resources: Adolescents in the Reconstruction of Sierra Leone : Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in Sierra Leone, April-July 20

Citation:

Lowicki, Jane, Allison A Pillsbury, and Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. Precious Resources: Adolescents in the Reconstruction of Sierra Leone : Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in Sierra Leone, April-July 2002. New York, N.Y.: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

Authors: Jane Lowicki, Allison A. Pillsbury

Annotation:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction pg. 1

Chapter II. Executive Summary pg. 3

Chapter III. Map pg.  9 

Chapter IV. Adolescence and Youth: A Community in Crisis pg. 10

Chapter V. Education: A Linchpin for Peace and Recovery pg. 14

Chapter VI. Livelihood: Young People Need Skills and Jobs pg. 22

Chapter VII. Health: Myth Versus Reality pg. 26

Chapter VIII. Protection: Few Resources, Many Categories of Vulnerability pg. 36

Chapter IX. Psychosocial: Moving Beyond Manipulation and Abuse pg. 55

Chapter X. Survey Results: Education, Poverty and Health Care Are Top Concerns pg. 64

Chapter XI. Adolescent Researchers Lead the Study: Methodology and Lessons Learned pg. 80

Chapter XII. International, Regional, National and Local Responses to Adolescent and Youth Concerns pg. 90

Chapter XIII. Recommendations pg. 101

Chapter XIV. Appendices pg. 108

Sierra Leone: Glossary of Key Players and Other Basics pg. 108

Methodological Materials pg. 112

Task Force on Protection From Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises pg.117

Youth Organizations pg. 118

Acronyms pg. 120

Chapter XV. Endnotes pg. 122

Topics: Gender, Girls, Boys, Health, Mental Health, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2002

Reconstructing Fragile Lives: Girls’ Social Reintegration in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone

Citation:

McKay, Susan. 2004. “Reconstructing Fragile Lives: Girls’ Social Reintegration in Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone.” Gender & Development 12 (3): 19–30.

Author: Susan McKay

Abstract:

In many contemporary African wars, girls and women participate in fighting forces. Their involvement is sometimes voluntary, but often they are coerced or abducted. In these forces, their roles range from porters, domestics, and 'wives' of male fighters, to spies and commanders. Few girls go through official UN processes of disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR). Their human rights severely violated, girls face enormous challenges to physical and psycho-social recovery. Typically, they return directly to their communities, or migrate to where friends or relatives live, or resettle in urban areas, where they are at increased risk of forced prostitution, sexual assault, and/or sexually transmitted diseases, including H IV/AIDS. This paper examines the experiences of girls who have returned from fighting forces in the recent conflict in Sierra Leone and the continuing conflict in northern Uganda. These experiences are compared with those of women who recalled their experiences when they were girl participants during the Mozambican war which ended in 1992.

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone, Uganda

Year: 2004

Who are you for? Women, Children and Hierarchies of Power

Citation:

Stovel, Laura, "Who are you for? Women, Children and Hierarchies of Power" In Long Road Home: Building Reconciliation and Trust in Post-War Sierra Leone, (Portland: Intersentia, 2010).

Author: Laura Stovel

Topics: Gender, Women, Transitional Justice, TRCs, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2010

Pages

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