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Pakistan

Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir

Citation:

Osuri, Goldie. 2018. “Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir.” Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal 3 (2): 228–43.

Author: Goldie Osuri

Abstract:

Drawing on Iffat Fatima’s documentary film, Khoon Diy Baarav or Blood Leaves its Trail (2015), this paper explores how a gendered Kashmiri activism against human rights violations allows for reenvisioning the concept of an authoritarian and violent Westphalian sovereignty concerned with exclusive political authority and territory. Previous studies of gendered resistance are examined as are reformulations of sovereignty through feminist and Indigenous critiques. Through these examinations, the paper offers a way to rethink sovereignty through the theoretical concept of vulnerability. Such a rethinking of sovereignty may point to an interrelational model of sovereignty where the vulnerability of gendered bodies and the environment may be emphasised. In the context of human rights violations in Kashmir, this reenvisioning of sovereignty may be a necessary counter to the repetitious cycles of necropolitical sovereign power.

Keywords: Gender and sovereignty, Kashmir, human rights, vulnerability, resistance and activism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Governance, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2018

The Little Mermaid’s Silent Security Dilemma and the Absence of Gender in the Copenhagen School

Citation:

Hansen, Lene. 2000. “The Little Mermaid’s Silent Security Dilemma and the Absence of Gender in the Copenhagen School.” Millennium: Journal of International Studies 29 (2): 285–306.

Author: Lene Hansen

Annotation:

Summary:
"The article proceeds in three parts, the first introduces the Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization and security as a speech act in more detail. The second part argues the importance of the ‘security as silence’ and ‘subsuming security’ problems. It confronts the common response to calls for the inclusion of gender in security analysis: that it falls under the category of social security, not ‘proper’ national security, and that it concerns individual, not collective security. Through a discussion of the case of honour killings in Pakistan, both of these claims are countered, and it is shown that gender insecurity concerns not only social redistribution but fundamental questions of survival, and that the security of particular individuals is deeply embedded in collective constructions of subjectivity and security. Drawing on the work of Judith Butler, the third part suggests that a theory of gender and security should consider the importance of the body within the speech act. Second, that the focus on whether to expand the concept of security should be supplemented with a theory of what conditions the construction of ‘security problems’. This involves an approach to security which foregrounds the role of practice, in particular how political practices depend upon and reinforce subjectivity, and how practices of security might strive to individualise security problems thereby taking them out of the public and political domain" (Hansen 2000, 287).

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Security, Sexual Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2000

Gender Mainstreaming in to Community Based Disaster Risk Management

Citation:

Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed, Muhammad Naseem Baig, Haleema Sadia, Muhammad Bilal Khurshed, and Sadaf Saleem. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming in to Community Based Disaster Risk Management.” European Scientific Journal 9 (32): 463–70.

Authors: Muhammad Jawed Iqbal, Muhammad Naseem Baig, Haleema Sadia, Muhammad Bilal Khurshed, Sadaf Saleem

Abstract:

Although women are considered as the most vulnerable group in the society; but very little attention has been made to take into consideration the issue of gender sensitivity during the phase of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction as well as Management in both natural and manmade disaster. In Pakistan a very limited number of organization are working to address the issue of mainstreaming of women in pre and post disaster activities. The goal of this paper is to synthesize and review the issue of disaster and gender mainstreaming. This paper highlights the gaps in terms of disaster preparedness by adopting CBDRM; and also critically analyzes the importance of the mainstreaming the element of gender in the phase of Disaster Mainstreaming overall in general and specific in the context of Pakistan. Recommendations and suggestions of the paper can be used to design and implement comprehensive CBDRM Preparedness Plan by mainstreaming the element of Gender sensitivity.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, disaster, CBDRM

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2013

Using a Mixed Method Approach to Discuss the Intersectionalities of Class, Education, and Gender in Natural Disasters for Rural Vulnerable Communities in Pakistan

Citation:

Raza, Hassan. 2017. “Using a Mixed Method Approach to Discuss the Intersectionalities of Class, Education, and Gender in Natural Disasters for Rural Vulnerable Communities in Pakistan.” Journal of Rural & Community Development 12 (1): 128–48.

Author: Hassan Raza

Abstract:

During the floods of 2014, Pakistan lost 267 human lives. 2.5 million people were displaced, 129,880 houses were fully or partially destroyed, and over 1 million acres of cropland and 250,000 farmers were affected, which resulted in the loss of cash crops and standing food. Using Intersectionality Theory, the current study examines the effects of income, education, land ownership, land type, disaster type, gender, and disability on the loss of agricultural crops, controlling for respondents’ age. Secondary data was used for this study from a 2012 baseline survey of disaster risk reduction, conducted by a nongovernment organization in District Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that education of household head, high income, and land ownership decreased the likelihood of losing agricultural crops, whereas floods, women-headed households, and disabled family members increased the likelihood of losing agricultural crops.

Keywords: intersectionality, natural disasters, rural vulnerable communities

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, intersectionality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2017

Women Selling and Promoting Energy Efficient Products in Northern Pakistan

Citation:

Khudadad, Nahida, Nasima Sultana, and Faisal F. Khan. 2013. "Women Selling and Promoting Energy Efficient Products in Northern Pakistan." Renewable Energy 49: 271-74.

Authors: Nahida Khudadad, Nasima Sultana, Faisal F. Khan

Abstract:

Aga Khan Planning and Building Service, Pakistan (AKPBSP) has developed appropriate Energy Efficient House Improvement (EE-HI) Products through participatory approach by including women, which improves the thermal efficiency, ventilation, illumination, and space management in rural houses. To sustain its interventions at the local level, AKPBSP trains local entrepreneurs, craftsman, and Sales Persons (50% female), in manufacturing, installing and selling EE-IH products. This paper identifies the great value addition female Resource/Sales Persons have brought in scaling-up the EE-HI products through an incentive based sales and promotion market mechanism.
 
Most (80%) [1] of the households in northern Pakistan can buy more than one product given that families have easy access to BACIP EE&HI products and are linked with microcredit facilities. At-least combination of 03 BACIP EE&HI products can have a cumulative impact on increasing the thermal efficiency of houses. AKPBSP therefore, is applying a twofold incentive based approach to scale-up the replication of product combinations, which includes training Sales/Resource Persons in Promotions and Sales of energy efficient products and linking them with AKPBS trained and certified manufacturers and microcredit organizations to sell EE&HI products on 10% commissions. In the pilot phase, more than 60 Resource/Sales Persons took part in the initiative throughout Northern Pakistan and as a result (in two years time) more than 2354 EE-HI products were sold to 1812 household in 15 remote villages. Among the 1812 households, 444 households were linked with microfinance institutions to purchase EE&HI products.

Keywords: energy efficiency, female entrepreneurs, productions, sales, demand generations

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2013

Women and Weapons: Redressing the Gender Gap: A Pakistani Response

Citation:

Malik, Salma. 2014. “Women and Weapons: Redressing the Gender Gap: A Pakistani Response.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 70 (5): 12–16.

Author: Salma Malik

Abstract:

In nuclear war, women would suffer at least as much as men. But women tend to be underrepresented in fields—such as high-level politics, diplomacy, military affairs, and science and technology—that bear on nuclear policy. Authors from four countries—Salma Malik of Pakistan, Polina Sinovets of Ukraine (2014), Reshmi Kazi of India (2014), and Jenny Nielsen of Denmark (2014)—discuss how women might gain greater influence on nuclear weapons policy and how their empowerment might affect disarmament and nonproliferation efforts.

Keywords: Hillary Clinton, India, nuclear policy, nuclear weapons, Pakistan, Rose Gottemoeller, Samantha Power, Sujatha Singh, Susan Rice, women

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equity, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2014

Women and Weapons: Redressing the Gender Gap: An Indian Response

Citation:

Kazi, Reshmi2014. "Women and weapons: Redressing the gender gap: An Indian Response." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 70 (5): 8-11.

Author: Reshmi Kazi

Abstract:

In nuclear war, women would suffer at least as much as men. But women tend to be underrepresented in fieldssuch as high-level politics, diplomacy, military affairs, and science and technologythat bear on nuclear policy. Authors from four countriesSalma Malik of Pakistan (2014), Polina Sinovets of Ukraine (2014), Reshmi Kazi of India, and Jenny Nielsen of Denmark (2014)discuss how women might gain greater influence on nuclear weapons policy and how their empowerment might affect disarmament and nonproliferation efforts.

Keywords: conflict, disarmament, India, nuclear policy, nuclear war, nuclear weapons, Pakistan, peace, stereotypes, women

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Political Participation, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2015

A Rural Support Programme Exit Strategy: Women Filling Vacated Spaces and Excelling in Community Development

Citation:

Rafi Khan, Shaheen, and Shahrukh Rafi Khan. 2012. “A Rural Support Programme Exit Strategy: Women Filling Vacated Spaces and Excelling in Community Development.” Development in Practice 22 (2): 154–63. doi:10.1080/09614524.2012.640982.

Authors: Shaheen Rafi Khan, Shahrukh Rafi Khan

Abstract:

Rural support programmes in Pakistan are major players in rural development, with significant outreach. Owing to funding constraints, they are currently exploring an exit strategy whereby they facilitate the formation of multi-tier local support organisations (LSOs), including those exclusively run by women. The present article focuses on the impact of this exit strategy on rural women. The findings, based on survey research, show that women have fared well, been more effective in running the LSOs than men and, despite confronting a conservative culture, have effectively filled in spaces vacated by men.

Keywords: aid, civil society, Gender and Diversity

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Gender, Women, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2012

Boundary Battles: Muslim Women and Community Identity in the Aftermath of Violence

Citation:

Robinson, Rowena. 2010. “Boundary Battles: Muslim Women and Community Identity in the Aftermath of Violence.” Women’s Studies International Forum 33 (4): 365–73. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2010.02.010.

Author: Rowena Robinson

Abstract:

In ethnic conflicts in South Asia, women's bodies become sites for contestations of honour. Fundamentalist movements to ‘purify’ a community typically try to control women's movements, behaviour, dress and deportment. Muslim women in India have suffered increasing pressures in the escalating ethnic violence of recent decades.

The increasing divide between communities and consequent ghettoization of Muslims has profound effects on women's everyday lives. Ghettoization protects and confines: as women attempt to escape from targeting by the Hindus, they come under surveillance of the men of their own community. Their struggles for reform and gender equality are viewed with increasing displeasure by Muslim men and religious leaders. Women are seen as betraying the community in its hour of distress by raising such issues. Thus, women get further confined by community boundaries even if there are some who seek to dissolve them by focusing on issues of gender, class or citizenship rights.

Topics: Gender, Women, Post-Conflict, Religion, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2010

Long-Term Gendered Consequences of Permanent Disabilities Caused by the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake

Citation:

Irshad, Humaira, Zubia Mumtaz, and Adrienne Levay. 2012. “Long-Term Gendered Consequences of Permanent Disabilities Caused by the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake.” Disasters 36 (3): 452–64. 

Authors: Humaira Irshad, Zubia Mumtaz, Adrienne Levay

Abstract:

This study documents the long-term gendered impact of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake on women and men who were rendered paraplegic as a result of spinal cord injuries sustained during the disaster. Coping mechanisms are also mapped. The findings show that three years after the disaster, paraplegic women are socially, emotionally, and financially isolated. The small stipend they receive is a significant source of income, but it has also led to marital distrust, violence, and abuse. In contrast, men receive full social and emotional support. Their key concern is that the government is not providing them with opportunities to be economically productive. Contemporary discourse and post-disaster policies, while acknowledging the importance of incorporating a gender perspective in the immediate post-disaster period, have failed to acknowledge and address the longer-term gendered impact of disasters, in terms of the different types of impact and strategies adopted by women and men.

Keywords: disability, Disasters, earthquake, gender, Pakistan, paraplegia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Health Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2012

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