Printer-friendly version Send by email PDF version

Nigeria

Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment

Citation:

Sparr, Pamela. 1994. Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment. London: Zed Books

Author: Pamela Sparr

Annotation:

Summary:
This book explores the impact on Third World women of the stringent economic prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. Introductory chapters explain in non-jargonistic terms exactly what structural adjustment is. These are followed by feminist critiques of its implications, and then a series of carefully chosen case studies examining the specific dimensions of structural adjustment in countries as diverse as Jamaica, Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Turkey, Sri Lanka and the Philippines (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. What is structural adjustment?
Pamela Sparr
 
2. Feminist critiques of structural adjustment
Pamela Sparr
 
3. Privatization and the demise of state feminism in Egypt
Mervat F. Hatem
 
4. Ghana: women in the public and informal sectors under the economic recovery programme
Takyiwaa Manuh
 
5. What has export-oriented manufacturing meant for Turkish women?
Nilüfer Çagatay, Günseli Berik
 
6. Structural adjustment policies, industrial development and women in Sri Lanka
Swarna Jayaweera
 
7. The dynamics of economic change and gender roles: export cropping in the Philippines
Maria Sagrario Floro
 
8. Nigeria: agricultural exports and compensatory schemes -- rural women's production resources and quality of life
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
9. Hitting where it hurts most: Jamaican women's livelihoods in crisis
Joan French
 
10. Banking on women: where do we go from here?
Pamela Sparr
 

Topics: Development, Globalization, Privatization Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Egypt, Jamaica, Nigeria, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey

Year: 1994

An Analysis of the Role of Women in Curbing Energy Poverty in Nigeria

Citation:

Abdullahi, Adama A. 2017. “An Analysis of the Role of Women in Curbing Energy Poverty in Nigeria.” Journal of Sustainable Development Studies 10 (2): 45-60

Author: Adama A. Abdullahi

Abstract:

Despite Nigeria’s abundance of fossil and renewable energy resources, Nigerians still experience acute energy poverty; they either lack access to modern energy sources or have to cope with inadequate supply and poor quality. Close to 95 million people are fully reliant on traditional woodstoves for cooking.  Poor access to energy is directly affecting livelihoods, lowering quality of life and hurting the economy. Poor energy access is the root of energy poverty, it leads to drudgery, greater health risks, severely undermines health, inhibits education, limits livelihood opportunities, and reduces the chances for the poor to rise out of poverty, ultimately diminishing the world’s chances to successfully achieve the SDGs by 2030. Even though global efforts are headed in the right direction to end energy poverty, the rate of interventions is far behind the population growth rate and calls for dramatic accelerations in mobilizing resources to increase access to renewable energy alternatives.  

This study explores and emphasises that women are not only a special interest group in using renewable energy to alleviate energy poverty in Nigeria; they are the mainstream users and often producers of energy, it has become glaring that women are the fastest growing cohort of entrepreneurs and business owners in many developing countries especially Nigeria. Without their involvement, renewable energy projects risk being inappropriate and failing. Energy researchers who will leave women out of energy research and analysis will be failing to understand a large part of energy consumption and production all over the world. Women are a key resource in the energy service delivery process though underutilized. They are primarily viewed only as energy consumers even while it is the women that experience energy poverty much more severely than men. The result shows that there is great opportunity for collaboration with women on community energy projects that can contribute to ending energy poverty in Nigeria. Also there is opportunity in development that is yet to be harnessed in women’s entrepreneurship & potential impacts for the household and agricultural energy sector in Nigeria because evidently financial liberation of women has a greater impact on the community than any other demographic.

Keywords: energy poverty, renewable energy, women and energy, gender sensitive energy practices, energy access

Topics: Poverty, Women, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2017

Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

Citation:

Gladwin, Christina H, University of Florida, and Center for African Studies. 1991. Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Gainesville: University of Florida Press : Center for African Studies, University of Florida : Orders, University Presses of Florida.

Authors: Christina H. Gladwin, University of Florida, Center for African Studies

Annotation:

Summary: 
Focuses on the debates surrounding structural lending programmes and the effect they have on women in Africa. It questions the conventional dependency model and provides some counter-evidence that the economic position of women in societies with freer market policies has improved (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Structural adjustment and structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa
Stephen O'Brien
 
2. Women, structural adjustment, and transformation: some lessons and questions from the African experience
Uma Lele
 
3. Getting priorities right: structural transformation and strategic notions
Bruce F. Johnston
 
4. Policies to overcome the negative effects of structural adjustment programs on African female-headed households
Jean M. Due
 
5. Impact of structural adjustment programs on Women and their households in Bendel and Ogun States, Nigeria
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
6. Women and structural adjustment in Zaire
Brooke Schoef et al.
 
7. Impact of structural adjustment programs on rural women in Tanzania
Ruth Meena
 
8. Fertilizer subsidy removal programs and their potential impacts on women farmers in Malawi and Cameroon
Christina H. Gladwin
 
9. Women traders in Ghana and the structural adjustment program
Gracia Clark and Takyiwaa Manuh
 
10. Ideology and political economy of gender: women and land in Nso, Cameroon
Miriam Goheen
 
11. Women's agricultural work in a multimodal rural economy: Ibarapa District, Oyo State, Nigeria
Jane I. Guyer with Olukemi Idowu
 
12. Structural transformation and its consequences for Orma women pastoralists
Jean Ensminger
 
13. New women's organizations in Nigeria: one response to structural adjustment
Lillian Trager and Clara Osinulu
 
14. Role of home economics agents in rural development programs in northern Nigeria: impacts of structural adjustment
Comfort B. Olayiwole
 
15. Curriculum planning for women and agricultural households: the case of Cameroon
Suzanna Smith, Barbara Taylor
 
16. Women farmers, structural adjustment, and FAO's plan of action for integration of women in development
Anita Spring and Vicki Wilde.
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania

Year: 1991

Male Bias in the Development Process

Citation:

Elson, Diane, ed. 1990. Male Bias in the Development Process. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Author: Diane Elson

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Male bias in the development process - an overview
 
2. Women, work and property in the Chinese peasant household of the 1980s
Diane Elson
 
3. Changing gender relations in Zimbabwe - the case of individual family resettlement areas
Delia Davin
 
4. The limits to women's independent careers - gender in the formal and informal sectors in Nigeria
Susie Jacobs
 
5. Informal sector or female sector? - gender bias in urban labour market models
Carolyne Dennis
 
6. Male bias and women's work in Mexico's border industries
Alison MacEwan Scott
 
7. Male bias in macroeconomics - the case of structural adjustment
Ruth Pearson
 
8. Overcoming male bias
Diane Elson

Topics: Development, Gendered Power Relations, Households, International Financial Institutions Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, East Asia Countries: China, Mexico, Nigeria, Zimbabwe

Year: 1990

Amnesty, Patriarchy and Women: The ‘Missing Gender’ Voice in Post-Conflict Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Citation:

Umejesi, Ikechukwu. 2014. “Amnesty, Patriarchy and Women: The ‘Missing Gender’ Voice in Post-Conflict Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.” Gender & Behaviour 12 (1): 6223–37.

Author: Ikechukwu Umejesi

Abstract:

On 25 June 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria declared amnesty for all armed groups fighting against the Nigerian state and oil producing companies in the Niger Delta region. The amnesty project spelt out a triple program of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of the militant groups. In other words, the program was designed to end the conflict and reintegrate the militants into the society through an economic empowerment process. While the amnesty program was hailed as "reconciliatory", "compensatory" and a "sustainable solution" towards achieving lasting peace in the restive region, the program seems to benefit only men who constitute the bulk of the militants and their commanders. It does not take into consideration the socio-ecologic and economic losses suffered by women throughout the course of the struggle. This paper asks: where are the women? Is the amnesty program an empowerment project or an entrenchment of patriarchy in the Niger Delta region? Using both primary and secondary sources, this article examines these questions as a way of understanding government's amnesty policy and its gender dynamics.

Keywords: Niger Delta, conflict, amnesty, women, patriarchy, gender, militants

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state armed groups, Peacebuilding Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Interactions among Poverty, Access to Modern Energy Sources, and Gender in Nigeria

Citation:

Ogwumike, Fidelis O., and Uche M. Ozughalu. 2014. "Interactions among Poverty, Access to Modern Energy Sources, and Gender in Nigeria." The Journal of Developing Areas 48 (4): 225-41.

Authors: Fidelis O. Ogwumike, Uche M. Ozughalu

Abstract:

This study examines the interactions among poverty, access to modern energy sources and gender in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression technique are used. The 2010 Nigeria Living Standard Survey data set obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics is used. The findings of the study show, among other things, that contrary to what happens in many countries of the world, both incidences of poverty and lack of access to modern energy sources are more pronounced among male-headed households than among female-headed households. The logistic regression estimates show, among other things, that poverty reduces the odds in favor of having access to modern energy sources and while female headship of household reduces the odds in favor of being in poverty, it increases the odds in favor of having access to modern energy sources. The forgoing should serve as invaluable guide to the Nigerian government and policy makers.

Keywords: poverty, modern energy sources, gender, logit model, Nigeria

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women’s Welfare and Education

Citation:

Babalola, Folaranmi Dapo. 2010. "Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women's Welfare and Education." Paper presented at the International Conference organized by United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), Dakar, May 3-7.

Author: Folaranmi Dapo Babalola

Annotation:

“Energy and women are linked in many diverse ways, particularly through the nature of the (predominantly biomass) energy resource base, the characteristics of the household and community economy, the features of energy policy, and the position of women in families and communities. Energy can be a vital entry point for improving the position of women in households and societies. To realise this potential, energy must be brought to centre stage and given the same importance as the other major global issues. In developing countries, especially in rural areas, 7% of world primary energy demand rely on biomass, such as fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural waste and animal dung, to meet their energy needs for cooking (IEA, 2006). The use of these traditional fuels in open fires or with simple stoves is not only less efficient and more polluting than modern energy options, but they are also unreliable, not easily controllable, and subject to various supply constraints (Heruela, and Wickramasinghe, 2008). The poor in developing countries therefore pay much more in terms of health impacts, collection time, and energy quality for the equivalent level of energy services as their counterparts in the developed world" (Babalola, 2010, p. 2).
 
“The significance of the energy sector within the broader poverty-energy-environment-nexus is well established (Adelekan and Jerome, 2006). Reliance on traditional biomass energy is particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting in some countries for 70 to 90% of primary energy supply and up to 95% of the total consumption" (p. 2).
 
“African countries continue to rely on biomass energy to meet the bulk of their household energy requirements. In Nigeria, it is estimated that about 91% of the household energy needs are met by biomass (Karekezi, 1999). An important step to finding lasting solutions to gender disparity in household energy problems might be a better understanding of the household sector i.e. accessibility and affordability of the various energy sources, household consumption pattern and impacts of fuel shortages; all these will help to fast track possible solution and plan for engendering gender empowerment. The study was therefore conducted in selected rural and urban areas of southwest Nigeria with the view to evaluating the households’ energy consumption pattern and the impacts on the welfare and standard of living of women and girl child in particular” (p. 3).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2010

Domestic Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Impact on Women and Family Welfare

Citation:

Aina, O.I., and A.I. Odebiyi. 1998. "Domestic Energy Crisis in Nigeria: Impact on Women and Family Welfare." African Economic History 26: 1-14.

Authors: O.I. Aina, A.I. Odebiyi

Abstract:

Energy consumption in the household sector in Nigeria is characterized by a general dependence on fuelwood, high inefficiency of energy consumption, decentralization of consumption (settlements are dispersed, making supply of electricity, for example, uneconomical), and an urban-rural dichotomy. The detrimental effects of fuelwood deficits and scarcity of alternative sources of fuel are mostly felt by women as a social group, poor rural women in particular. Although the Nigerian government established an Energy Commission in 1987 with the sole responsibility of coordinating the activities of NGOs and government agencies in charge of electricity generation, petroleum products production, coal production, and gas supply, the various agencies continue to operate without the necessary linkages. As it is, the requisite framework to address household energy issues is lacking, while the issue of fuelwood is yet to be addressed by government policy decisions. The present domestic energy crisis in Nigeria calls for immediate policy intervention. To effectuate an effective policy package, critical characteristics of the sector must be known, while the implications of the different options must be documented. (Abstract from AfricaBib)

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 1998

'I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency

Citation:

Oriola, Temitope. 2016. “‘I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency.” Review of African Political Economy 43 (149): 451–69. doi:10.1080/03056244.2016.1182013.

Author: Temitope Oriola

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This paper explores how a small sample of female ex-insurgents make sense of their engagement in Nigeria’s oil insurgency. The study is informed by three key questions: How did Delta women join the insurgency? Why did they join? How do they frame their participation? The paper analyses the prevalence of a masculinising rhetoric among participants. The majority of participants view their roles in the insurgency as antithetical to their gender. The implications of these findings are explored. Overall, the paper contributes to the growing body of work on women’s engagement in armed conflict as perpetrators rather than victims of violence.
 
French Abstract:
[« J’ai agi comme un homme » : l’étude des histoires des ex-insurgées sur l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigeria.] Cet article examine comment quelques ex-insurgées donnent du sens à leur engagement dans l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigéria. Cette étude tente de répondre à trois questions clés : Comment est-ce que les femmes du Delta ont rejoint l’insurrection? Pourquoi l’ont-elles rejoint? Comment est-ce qu’elles formulent leur participation? L’article analyse la prévalence d’une rhétorique masculinisante parmi les participants. La majorité des participants voit son rôle dans l’insurrection comme opposé à son genre. Les implications de ces résultats sont examinées. Dans l’ensemble, l’article contribue à la masse croissante de travail sur l’engagement des femmes dans les conflits armés, où elles sont considérées comme des responsables de la violence plutôt que comme des victimes.

Keywords: Niger Women, women and political violence, oil insurgency, Nigeria

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Female Perpetrators Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2016

Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring

Citation:

Omeire, Edward Uche, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, and Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire. 2014. “Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Niger Delta Women and the Burden Of Gas Flaring.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 10 (26): 151-62.

Authors: Edward Uche Omeire, Agbatse Augustine Aveuya, Chinedu T. Muoneme Obi, Adolphus Gold, Ufomba Akudo, Chinemerem Adaiheoma Omeire

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of gas flaring on Niger Delta Women. The findings of the study show that gas flaring impact men and women disappropriately, with women being more exposed and vulnerable due to a number of associated cultural and socio-economic factors. It was also observed that gas flaring ritual has continued endlessly in Niger Delta due to a number of factors which include: lack of political will, lack of sound and broad regulatory framework, high level of corruption and lack of patriotism among state actors and above all, insincerity and lack of environmental accountability among multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta. The authors therefore conclude that there is the urgent need to mainstream gender in oil and gas policies in Nigeria. There is also the need to put in place a sound and broad regulatory framework that will compel multi-national oil companies operating in the Niger delta to be environmentally accountable to the people.

Keywords: gas flaring, Niger Delta, women, degradation, environment

Topics: Corruption, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Energy, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2014

Pages

© 2018 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Nigeria