Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version


Fiscal Policy, Accountability and Voice: The Example of Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives


Bakker, Isabella. 2002. Fiscal Policy, Accountability and Voice: The Example of Gender Responsive Budget Initiatives. New York: UNDP. 

Author: Isabella Bakker


The central argument of this chapter is that participatory budgeting and analysis - whether it is pro-poor, environment-sensitive or gender responsive - offers a new potentially innovative means for ensuring government accountability to international and national commitments as well as a more balanced distribution of public resources.

With this argument in mind, the chapter begins with a consideration of the relationship of accountability to fiscal policy. Accountability is explored in terms of its legal, institutional and market dimensions. This is followed by an analysis of budgets and accountability as they relate to four aspects that are of importance. These are: a. comprehensiveness; b. institutional responsiveness; c. transparency; and, d. credibility of commitments. Our next section outlines some justifications for one form of applied participatory budgeting-gender responsive budgeting. This is a preamble to explaining what gender responsive budgets are, and how such budgets relate to the four aspects of accountability sketched earlier. Our elements of accountability are then related to cases that might contribute to an inventory of best practice. These examples are drawn from a variety of countries such as India, Mauritius, Tanzania and Mexico. Also important are initiatives taken by multilateral institutions such as the Commonwealth Secretariat and entities within the UN system such as UNIFEM. The chapter ends with conclusions about lessons learned from these gender budget initiatives, how they might be applied to other participatory exercises and points to next steps. 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Mauritius, Mexico, Tanzania

Year: 2002

The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences


Ballington, Julie, ed. 2004. The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences. Stockholm: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.

Author: Julie Ballington


This report examines women’s political representation on the African continent, and shows how quotas have contributed to increasing women’s access to political power. Gender quotas are now increasingly viewed as an important policy measure for boosting women’s access to decision-making bodies throughout the world. Experience from Africa is very encouraging: over 20 countries on the continent either have legislated quotas or political parties that have adopted them voluntarily. This report illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts.

The report includes 17 regional and country case studies. The country case studies include Egypt, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. (IDEA)

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Quotas, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2004

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Mauritius