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Laos

Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts

Citation:

Archambault, Caroline, and Annelies Zoomers, eds. 2015. Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. London and New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315765822.

Authors: Caroline Archambault, Annelies Zoomers

Annotation:

This book explores the gendered dimensions of recent land governance transformations across the globe in the wake of unprecedented pressures on land and natural resources. These complex contemporary forces are reconfiguring livelihoods and impacting women’s positions, their tenure security and well-being, and that of their families.

Bringing together fourteen empirical community case studies from around the world, the book examines governance transformations of land and land-based resources resulting from four major processes of tenure change: commercial land based investments, the formalization of customary tenure, the privatization of communal lands, and post-conflict resettlement and redistribution reforms. Each contribution carefully analyses the gendered dimensions of these transformations, exploring both the gender impact of the land tenure reforms and the social and political economy within which these reforms materialize. The cases provide important insights for decision makers to better promote and design an effective gender lens into land tenure reforms and natural resource management policies. (Summary from Taylor & Francis eBooks)

Table of Contents:
Introduction 
 
Part 1: From Farm to Firm: A Bad Deal for Women? 
 
1. Gender, Land and Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR  
 
2. Women and Benefit Sharing in Large Scale Land Deals: A Mining Case Study from Papua New Guinea  
 
3. A Women's World or the Return of Men? The Gendered Impacts of Residential Tourism in Costa Rica  
 
Part 2: From de Facto to de Jure: Formalizing Patriarchy in the Codification of Customary Tenure?  
 
4. Cameroon's Community Forests Program and Women's Income Generation from Non-Timber Forest Products: Negative impacts and potential solutions  
 
5. Gendered Mobilization: Women and the Politics of Indigenous Land Claims in Argentina  
 
6. Joint Land Titles in Madagascar: The gendered outcome of a "gender neutral" land tenure reform  
 
7. Land Titling and Women's Decision-Making in West Bengal  
 
Part 3: From Common Property to Private Holdings: A Tragedy for the Commoners?  
 
8. "One Doesn't Sell One's Parents:" Gendered Experiences of Shifting Tenure Regimes in the Agricultural Plain of the Sais in Morocco  
 
9. Aging Ejidos in the Wake of Neo-Liberal Reform: Livelihood Predicaments of Mexican Ejidatarias  
 
10. Women's Forestland Rights in the Collective Forestland Reforms in China: Fieldword Findings and Policy Recommendations  
 
11. Gendered Perspectives on Rangeland Privatization among the Maasai of Southern Kenya  
 
Part 4: From Conflict to Peace: An Opportunity for Gender Reconstruction?  
 
12. Reproducing Patriarchy on Resettled Lands: A lost opportunity in reconstituting women's land rights in the fast track land reform program in Zimbabwe  
 
13. Resigning Their Rights? Impediments to women's property ownership in Kosovo  
 
14. Strengthening Women's Land Rights while Recognizing Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Resettlement in Lao PDR: Mobility, Resistance and Gendered Impacts

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, Ragnhild Lund, Smita Mishra Panda, Yunxian Wang, and Sengkham Vongphakdy. 2015. “Resettlement in Lao PDR: Mobility, Resistance and Gendered Impacts.” Gender, Place & Culture 22 (8): 1089–1105. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2014.939149.

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Ragnhild Lund, Smita Mishra Panda, Yunxian Wang, Sengkham Vongphakdy

Abstract:

Villagers in northern Laos have been on the move for generations. Recent changes, however, in the location of their village and their daily mobility patterns differ from what they have experienced before; the government’s resettlement programme has changed their livelihoods and made them more socially and economically vulnerable. The ethnic groups we studied have decided to use mobility to resist state control and seek livelihood security for themselves. By using the concept of motility, this article analyses how this household and community choices have a gender-differentiated impact. The mobility patterns of men and women have changed. While men attend to long-term investments, women are forced to make ends meet on a day-to-day basis. Men visit the market and public places more frequently, while women spend more time looking for non-timber forest products and working as hired labour. Although women now support the family and their mobility has increased, their say in the household seems to be on the decline, resulting in weakening women’s motility. 

 

Keywords: gender, resettlement, mobility, Laos, livelihoods

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Laos

Year: 2015

The People and their River, the World Bank and its Dam: Revisiting the Xe Bang Fai River in Laos

Citation:

Baird, Ian G., Bruce P. Shoemaker, and Kanokwan Manorom. 2015. “The People and Their River, the World Bank and Its Dam: Revisiting the Xe Bang Fai River in Laos.” Development and Change 46 (5): 1080–1105. doi:10.1111/dech.12186.

Authors: Ian G. Baird, Bruce P. Shoemaker, Kanokwan Manorom

Abstract:

Sustained criticism in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in a decline of World Bank funding for large hydropower dams. The Bank subsequently participated in the World Commission on Dams process, which set higher global standards for hydropower dams. In 2005, the World Bank agreed to support the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project (NT2) in Laos, and in 2010 NT2 began diverting water from the Theun River into the Xe Bang Fai River. The World Bank has promoted NT2 as a successful model of poverty alleviation, justifying support for other large dams. Assessing actual impacts and associated mitigation and compensation is thus timely. This article presents qualitative field research from early 2014 about the downstream impacts of NT2 in the Xe Bang Fai River basin and a description and analysis of efforts to compensate for losses. The authors consider the situation with the assistance of baseline data collected in 2001, before project approval. Findings suggest that NT2 has had a significant negative impact, including on the livelihoods of large numbers of people dependent on the river's resources. Many of those impacted view compensation and mitigation efforts as having failed to adequately address their losses. Further independent investigation and documentation are needed.

Topics: Gender, Women, Infrastructure, International Financial Institutions, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Laos

Year: 2015

Road Development, and Changes in Livelihood and Mobility in Savannakhet, Lao PDR

Citation:

Khumya, Tanaradee, and Kyoko Kusakabe. 2015. “Road Development, and Changes in Livelihood and Mobility in Savannakhet, Lao PDR.” Development in Practice 25 (7): 1011–24. doi:10.1080/09614524.2015.1071782.

Authors: Tanaradee Khumya, Kyoko Kusakabe

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT

The development of roads is a major focus of development projects in the Mekong Sub-Region. This empirical study was conducted in Savannakhet, Lao PDR, to examine the benefits of road development, its impact on livelihoods, and the link between livelihoods and mobility through the concept of sense of place. The results showed that road development affected people's livelihoods, which, in turn, affected their sense of place and mobility. Analysing sense of place allows us to understand how road development can change gender norms and why more women migrate than men.

FRENCH ABSTRACT

Le développement des routes constitue un important axe des projets de développement dans la sous-région du Mékong. Cette étude empirique a été menée à Savannakhet, en RDP lao, pour examiner les avantages du développement des routes, son impact sur les moyens de subsistance et le lien entre les moyens de subsistance et la mobilité grâce au concept du sentiment d'appartenance. Les résultats ont montré que le développement des routes a eu une incidence sur les moyens de subsistance des personnes, ce qui a eu un effet sur leur sentiment d'appartenance et leur mobilité. En analysant le sentiment d'appartenance, il nous est possible de comprendre comment le développement des routes peut modifier les normes de genre et pourquoi les femmes sont plus nombreuses à migrer que les hommes.

SPANISH ABSTRACT

En los proyectos de desarrollo realizados en la subregión del Mekong, la construcción de carreteras constituye una importante área de atención. El presente estudio empírico, destinado a examinar los beneficios ligados a la construcción de carreteras, su impacto en los medios de vida y el vínculo entre medios de vida y movilidad, empleando para ello el concepto de “sentido de lugar”, se llevó a cabo en Savannakhet, rdp Lao. Los resultados dan cuenta de que la construcción de carreteras afectó los medios de vida de las personas, los cuales, a su vez, afectaron su sentido de lugar y su movilidad. El análisis del sentido de lugar permite comprender cómo la construcción de carreteras puede cambiar las normas vinculadas al género y las razones por las cuales las mujeres migran más que los hombres.

Keywords: gender, diversity, livelihoods, migration, labor, aid

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Infrastructure Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Laos

Year: 2015

War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 1998. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

This engaging and vivid book investigates the course of the HIV epidemic in seven countries of South East Asia: Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam and China’s Yunnan Province. Emphasising the impact of the cultural and political landscapes of these countries on the progress of the disease, the book is the product of both working and travelling in the area. Not merely a commentary on obfuscating government statistics, the author draws upon his encounters with people dealing with the effects of the epidemic and opponents of the regimes of the countries he describes. The epidemic is seen as being vitally linked to the general condition of human rights in the societies.

In the first part of the book the author travels to each country in turn chronicling the different approaches adopted to the epidemic. The second part covers issues involving specific groups at risk - among other topics, women and contraception, prostitution and the traffic in women, HIV and the US military, the Heroin trade, gay sex workers, prisoners, and the work of local activists. The third part of the book looks at policy and the general effect of culture on public health care, stressing the need for local empowerment of populations, and in particular women, to effect social changes that would go hand in hand with improvements in the handling of the HIV epidemic. Both passionate and well-informed, this book is a labour of love that discusses the HIV epidemic while giving an intimate, and ultimately celebratory account of South East Asia and asserting the real possiblity for affirmative action. (Amazon)

Topics: Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 1998

Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from Below

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko. 2005. “Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from below.” Gender & Development 13 (2): 46–56.

Author: Kyoko Kusakabe

Abstract:

In this article, I aim to examine the ways in which gender concerns have been 'mainstreamed' into government activities. I focus on three countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. While gender mainstreaming policies are in place at the national level in these countries, the 'evaporation' (Longwe 1995) of such policies at the lower levels has been a problem. The article concentrates on challenges of implementation which exist at provincial/commune and department levels. Drawing on the experience of middle and low-level government officers, I argue here that policy evaporation occurs partly because of lack of political commitment to gender mainstreaming at different levels. Another problem is that the concept of gender mainstreaming itself remains vague, and is thus difficult to translate into action.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand

Year: 2005

Mental Health of Southeast Asian Refugee Women: An Overview

Citation:

Mattson, Susan. 1993. "Mental Health of Southeast Asian Refugee Women: An Overview." Health Care for Women International 14 (2): 155-165.

Author: Susan Mattson

Abstract:

Southeast Asian refugee women suffered extremely traumatic experiences at the hands of the Khmer Rouge, during their escapes from Cambodia and Laos, and in refugee camps. I describe these experiences as the background for interventions to promote and reestablish mental health in these women. A reported study of women who were experiencing psychosomatic blindness as a result of the trauma they had undergone is presented as an example. Therapeutic strategies are suggested.

Keywords: mental health, female refugees, trauma

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos

Year: 1993

Refugee Experiences and Southeast Asian Women's Mental Health

Citation:

Davis, Ruth E., Michael G. Kennedy, and Wendy Austin. 2000. "Refugee Experiences and Southeast Asian Women’s Mental Health." Western Journal of Nursing Research 22 (2): 144-68.

Authors: Ruth E. Davis, Michael G. Kennedy, Wendy Austin

Abstract:

The wars in Southeast Asia displaced thousands of families from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The upheavals led to a number of waves of immigration to the United States. Current research supports hypotheses of post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses in refugees from the wars in Vietnam but omits pertinent cultural factors. This phenomenological study of 19 women from Southeast Asia examines the meanings of their refugee experiences. Open-ended interviews with these women reveal themes of survival, despair, and isolation. Health care providers may notice cultural bereavement as opposed to post-traumatic stress disorder, reflecting a psychological resilience not extensively explored previously. Developing empathetic interactions and including important ethnic identity factors in caring for refugee women appear essential in providing appropriate health care.

Keywords: female refugees, mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam

Year: 2000

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