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Indonesia

Assessing Gender Vulnerability within Post-Earthquake Reconstruction: Case Study from Indonesia

Citation:

Yumarni, Tri, Dilanthi Amaratunga, and Richard Haigh. 2014. “Assessing Gender Vulnerability within Post-Earthquake Reconstruction: Case Study from Indonesia.” Procedia Economics and Finance 18: 763–71.

Authors: Tri Yumarni, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Richard Haigh

Abstract:

Understanding types of gender vulnerability and its determinants within disaster management context is useful to protect women and men from greater destabilization, to achieve better process of disaster management, to enhance sustainability of reconstruction and to build community resilience. Using mixed method combining qualitative and quantitative data analysis, this study reveals various dimensions of gender vulnerability within post-earthquake reconstruction at Yogyakarta province. This study found that the physical dimension (i.e. women with disabilities, pregnant women, elderly women), four types of social dimension (i.e. homeless women, violence against women, widow with many dependents, women heading household), and two types of economic dimension (i.e. women with debt burden and women with lack of productive assets) are the most prominent dimension. Existing patriarchal culture and weak of gendered institution are the root causes of gender vulnerability. This study suggests assessing gender vulnerability within post-disaster reconstruction helps key stakeholders to identify dimensions and determinants of gender vulnerability that should be tackled to ensure gender equality within post-disaster reconstruction.

Keywords: gender, vulnerability, post-earthquake reconstruction, Indonesia

Topics: Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2014

The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy

Citation:

Bakker, Isabella, ed. 1994. The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy. London, UK; Atlantic Highlands, N.J., USA: Zed Books in association with the North-South Institute/l’Institut Nord-Sud.

Author: Isabella Bakker

Annotation:

Summary:
Most treatments of economic change harbour a conceptual silence: the refusal to recognise that global restructuring is occurring on a gendered terrain. This book's unique contribution to the literature on restructuring and adjustment lies in its application of feminist scholarship to macroeconomics. The contributors focus on these conceptual silences, examining macroeconomic methods and policies in order to propose new research strategies to deliver a more gender-aware economics (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction : engendering macro-economic policy reform in the era of global restructuring and adjustment
Isabella Bakker
 
2. Conceptual silences and new research strategies. Micro, meso, macro : gender and economic analysis in the context of policy reform
Diane Elson
 
3. Shifting the boundaries : gender and the politics of restructuring
Janine Brodie
 
4. Structural adjustment, demographic change and population policies : some preliminary notes
Caren Grown
 
5. Gender, productivity and macro-economic policies in the context of structural adjustment and change
Marjorie W. Williams
 
6. Macro-economics, the state and the household : lessons from the north and south. Restructuring in the fishing industry in Atlantic Canada
Martha MacDonald
 
7. The implications of economic restructuring for women : the Canadian situation
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
8. Gender bias and macro-economic policy : methodological comments from the Indonesian example
Barbara Evers
 
9. Turkish women and structural adjustment
Nilufer Cagatay
 
10. Mexican rural women wage earners and macro-economic policies
Antonieta Barrón
 
11. Women and the state : some considerations of ideological and economic frameworks in engendering policies
Haleh Afshar
 
12. The impact of structural adjustment policies on women : some general observations relating to conceptual bias
Swapna Mukhopadhyay.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Privatization Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey

Year: 1994

Role of Women as Risk Communicators to Enhance Disaster Resilience of Bandung, Indonesia

Citation:

Mulyasari, Farah, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. “Role of Women as Risk Communicators to Enhance Disaster Resilience of Bandung, Indonesia.” Natural Hazards 69 (3): 2137–60. 

Authors: Farah Mulyasari, Rajib Shaw

Abstract:

This study addresses the need for women risk communication and highlights the potential role of Women Welfare Associations (WWAs) of Bandung, Indonesia, as risk communicators. A risk communication framework is modeled for women's risk communication process. A set of indicators in social, institutional, and economic resilience activities (SIERAs), with a scope of 45 activities covering three different disaster periods, were developed to characterize the delivery process of risk information by women in WWAs through their activities at sub-district and ward levels. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey method using the risk communication SIERA approach. Women's leaders at wards were surveyed concerning their perceptions on these 45 scopes of SIERA, ongoing activities, and their risk information source and dissemination process. Correlation analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the variables such as periods of disaster, types of activities (social, institutional, economic), and attributing factors (location, population, and education institution) in finding variations in risk communication activity that functions for women and communities. Five risk communication processes of WWAs are identified and implemented that work for women in Bandung. When their perceptions and ongoing activities are compared, activities such as dissemination of disaster risk information, conveying early warnings to their peers, and involvement of the local government have been confirmed to match the risk communication plans and implementation of WWAs. These indicate that WWAs' activities in Bandung implement a certain degree of risk communication that is embedded in their activities. The results confirm that women through their social networks can become active agents of change and thus act beyond their usual domestic roles and responsibilities in order to contribute to the overall enhancement of community resilience.

Keywords: Bandung, disaster risk, risk communication, SIERA, women, Women Welfare Associations, Resilience

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Roles Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2013

Beyond Men and Women: A Critical Perspective on Gender and Disaster

Citation:

Gaillard, J.C., Kristinne Sanz, Benigno C. Balgos, Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay, Andrew Gorman-Murray, Fagalua Smith, and Vaito’a Toelupe. 2016. “Beyond Men and Women: A Critical Perspective on Gender and Disaster.” Disasters 41 (3): 429–47. doi:10.1111/disa.12209.

Authors: J.C. Gaillard, Kristinne Sanz, Benigno C. Balgos, Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay, Andrew Gorman-Murray, Fagalua Smith, Vaito'a Toelupe

Abstract:

Consideration of gender in the disaster sphere has centred almost exclusively on the vulnerability and capacities of women. This trend stems from a polarised Western understanding of gender as a binary concept of man—woman. Such an approach also mirrors the dominant framing of disasters and disaster risk reduction (DRR), emphasising Western standards and practices to the detriment of local, non-Western identities and experiences. This paper argues that the man—woman dichotomy is an insufficient construct with which to address the gendered dimensions of a disaster as it fails to capture the realities of diverse gender minorities in non-Western contexts. The paper presents case studies from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Samoa, where gender minorities display specific patterns of vulnerability associated with their marginal positions in society, yet, importantly, also possess a wide array of endogenous capacities. Recognition of these differences, needs, skills, and unique resources is essential to moving towards inclusive and gender-sensitive DRR.

Keywords: capacity, disaster, gender identity, gender minorities, vulnerability

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Indonesia, Philippines, Samoa

Year: 2016

The Warias of Indonesia in Disaster Risk Reduction

Citation:

Balgos, Benigno, J.C. Gaillard, and Kristinne Sanz. 2012. “The Warias of Indonesia in Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of the 2010 Mt Merapi Eruption in Indonesia.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 337–48. doi:10.1080/13552074.2012.687218.

Authors: Benigno Balgos, J.C. Gaillard, Kristinne Sanz

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This field note draws upon the concepts of vulnerability, marginalisation, and capacity of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to face natural hazards. As a case study, this paper highlights the response of warias, members of the LGBT community in Indonesia, during the 2010 Mt Merapi eruption. Through key informant interviews and observation of actual relief operations led by warias in several evacuation sites in Yogyakarta and Central Java, the paper highlights that warias contributed to disaster risk reduction (DRR) even though they are marginalised and discriminated in the country because of prevailing religious and societal attitudes. The paper argues that their needs and capacities should be acknowledged in DRR policies and practice.
 
French Abstract:
Cette note de terrain a recours aux concepts de vulnérabilité, de marginalisation et de capacité des personnes homosexuelles, bisexuelles et transsexuelles (HBT) à faire face aux aléas naturels. Comme étude de cas, cet article met en relief la réaction des warias, membres de la communauté HBT en Indonésie, durant l’éruption de 2010 du Mont Merapi. Grâce à des entretiens avec des interlocuteurs clés et l’observation d’opérations humanitaires menées par des warias dans plusieurs sites d’évaluation à Yogyakarta et au centre de Java, cet article souligne le fait que les warias ont contribué à la réduction des risques de catastrophe (RRC) en dépit du fait qu’ils sont marginalisés et victimes de discriminations dans le pays à cause des attitudes religieuses et sociétales répandues. Les auteurs de cet article soutiennent que leurs besoins et capacités devraient être reconnus dans les politiques et pratiques de RRC.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Esta nota de campo se centra en la vulnerabilidad, la marginación y la capacidad de las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) de enfrentar los desastres naturales. A modo de estudio de caso, este ensayo destaca la respuesta de los warias, integrantes de la comunidad LGBT de Indonesia, tras la erupción de Monte Merapi en 2010. Mediante entrevistas a informantes clave y la observación de operaciones de ayuda concretas encabezadas por los warias en varias localidades evacuadas de Yogyakarta y Java Central, el ensayo subraya que los warias ayudaron a reducir los riesgos de desastres (DRR por sus siglas en inglés) a pesar de la marginación y la discriminación que sufren en el país por las actitudes religiosas y sociales. El ensayo sostiene que las necesidades y las capacidades de los warias deberán tomarse en cuenta en las políticas y prácticas de DRR.

Keywords: LGBT, waria, disaster risk reduction, humanitarian action, capacity, vulnerability, Indonesia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, LGBTQ, Religion Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2012

Gender (Plays) in Tanjung Bara Mining Camp in Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia

Citation:

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. 2013. “Gender (Plays) in Tanjung Bara Mining Camp in Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 20 (8): 979–98. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2012.737770.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Abstract:

All mining settlements are heavily gendered, not only because of the masculinity that the industry cultivates and flaunts, but also as a result of the power of capital manifested in the gendered class stratification of labour and space. When global capital penetrates remote resource peripheries in poorer countries, it also ushers mining experts, who are usually expatriate men from older industrialised and/or richer nations, into these areas. The cauldron of race–gender–class within the relatively small geographical space of the mining camp is worth exploring through a postcolonial feminist geographical perspective. This article explores the articulation and enactments of race–gender–class within such a location, the Tanjung Bara mining camp in eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, where economic opportunities offered by the mining boom have blurred the insider–outsider dichotomy by attracting migrants from across Indonesia as well as from overseas. It analyses the performances of differential power enjoyed by women and men, foreigners and Indonesians within multiple sites in Tanjung Bara. In particular, it illuminates the sites of social interactions: the dining hall, the tennis ground, the golf course, the swimming pool and the poolside bar. The article suggests that place, and how each place is accessed by different actors, is central in shaping how individuals perform gender within mining contexts. But, at the same time it complicates the place-based binary performances of race by exploring how individuals continuously rewrite the strict but unwritten codes of behaviour.

Keywords: gender in mining, racial boundary maintenance, performing gender, feminist fieldwork, Indonesia and mining

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Race Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2013

Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining

Citation:

Großmann, Kristina, Martina Padmanabhan, and Katharina von Braun. 2017. “Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining.” Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies 10 (1): 11–28. doi:10.14764/10.ASEAS-2017.1-2.

Authors: Kristina Großmann, Martina Padmanabhan, Katharina von Braun

Abstract:

This article reviews the literature on the relationship between gender and ethnicity in Indonesia’s mining sector and outlines shortcomings and prospects for further research. Recent studies on mining and gender focus predominantly on women and how they are negatively affected by mining. Ethnicity, although a growing asset in struggles on environmental transformations, is hardly included in research on mining. The intertwinement of ethnicity and gender in elaborations on mining is often depicted in literature of development programs and environmental organizations in which indigenous women are homogenized as marginalized victims. We argue, however, for a multidimensional approach on mining that takes into account the institutionalization of gender and ethnicity in mining governance as well as the role of gender and ethnic identities. Feminist political ecology and institutional analysis are pointing the way for such an approach. Furthermore, other relevant categories such as class, age, or status should be considered in the analysis of the complex and multidimensional environmental transformations of the mining sector in Indonesia.

Keywords: ethnicity, feminist political ecology, Indonesia, institutions, mining

Topics: Age, Class, Environment, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2017

Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen

Citation:

Marshall, Katherine, and Susan Hayward, eds. 2015. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Authors: Katherine Marshall, Susan Hayward

Abstract:

Many women working for peace around the world are motivated by their religious beliefs, whether they work within secular or religious organizations. These women often find themselves sidelined or excluded from mainstream peacebuilding efforts. Secular organizations can be uncomfortable working with religious groups. Meanwhile, religious institutions often dissuade or even disallow women from leadership positions. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen shows how women determined to work for peace have faced these obstacles in ingenious ways—suggesting, by example, ways that religious and secular organizations might better include them in larger peacebuilding campaigns and make those campaigns more effective in ending conflict.
 
The first part of the book examines the particular dynamics of women of faith working toward peace within Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. The second part contains case studies of women peacebuilders in Africa, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, detailing how their faiths have informed their work, what roles religious institutions have played as they have moved forward, what accomplishments have resulted from their efforts, and what challenges remain. An appendix of interviews offers further perspectives from peacebuilders, both women and men.
 
Ultimately, Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding is a call to change the paradigm of peacebuilding inside and outside of the world’s faiths, to strengthen women’s abilities to work for peace and, in turn, improve the chances that major efforts to end conflicts around the world succeed. (United States Institute of Peace)
 

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Religious Women’s Invisibility: Obstacles and opportunities
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

2. Part I: Women Peacebuilders: Distinctive Approaches of Different Religious Traditions
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

3. Catholic Women Building Peace: Invisibility, Ideas and Institutions Expand Ideas
Maryann Casimano Love

4. Muslim Women’s Peacebuilding Initiatives
S. Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana

5. Creating Peaceful and Sustainable Communities through the Spiritual Empowerment of Buddhism and Hinduism
Dena Merriam

6. Jewish Women in Peacebuilding: Embracing Disagreement in the Pursuit of “Shalom”
Lucy Kurtzer-Ellenbogen

7. Part II Women and Faith in Action: Regional Case Studies
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

8. An All-Women Peacekeeping Group: Lessons From the Mindanao People’s Caucus
Margaret Jenkins

9. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Bilkisu Yusuf and Sr. Kathleen McGarvey

10. The Politics of Resistance: Muslim Women Negotiating Peace in Aceh, Indonesia
Etin Anwar

11. Women Reborn: A Case Study of the Intersection of Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in a Palestinian Village in Israel
Andrea K. Blanch, with coauthors Esther Hertzog and Ibtisam Mahameed

12. Women Citizens and Believers as Agents of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zilka Spahic Šiljak

13. Women Peacebuilders in Post-Coup Honduras: Their Spiritual Struggle to Transform Multiple Forms of Violence
Mónica A. Maher

14. Women, Religion and Trauma Healing: A Case in India
Anjana Dayal Prewitt

15. Strengthening Religious Women’s Work for Peace
Jacqueline Ogega and Katherine Marshall

16. Conclusion: Seeking Common Ground
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

17. Appendix: Scholars and Practitioners Engaged with Women, Religion, and Peace

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Nigeria, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Philippines

Year: 2015

Rebuilding With or Without Women?

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2012. “Rebuilding With or Without Women?: Gendered Violence in Postconflict Peace and Reconstruction” In The Political Economy of Violence Against Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Chapter 8 examines the spike of sexual and gender-based violence in postconflict and peace-building environments. Despite recent UN Security Council resolutions, the invisibility of this violence against women during and after conflict marginalizes women in postconflict state-building and economic reconstruction processes. This economic and political marginalization of women exacerbates violence after conflict and hinders these peace-building efforts. The first part of the chapter applies the political economy approach of the book to reveal how gendered peacekeeping economies exacerbate violence against women. It critiques the prioritization of law and order over social and economic opportunities. The second part examines the role of women in peace-building decision making and economic reconstruction in places as diverse as East Timor; Aceh, Indonesia; Mindanao province in the Philippines; Iraq; Afghanistan; Colombia; Guatemala; the Congo; and Darfur. The chapter concludes by critically assessing two approaches to postconflict prevention of violence against women: the “good practice” of placing women peacekeepers in postconflict zones and the role of reparations in ensuring women's equal access to postconflict development.

 

Keywords: post conflict, peacekeeping economies, reparations, peacebuilding, economic reconstruction

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iraq, Philippines, Sudan, Timor-Leste

Year: 2012

Building Back Better? — Negotiating Normative Boundaries of Gender Mainstreaming and Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia

Citation:

Jauhola, Marjaana. 2010. "Building Back Better? — Negotiating Normative Boundaries of Gender Mainstreaming and Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Indonesia." Review of International Studies 36 (1): 29-50.

Author: Marjaana Jauhola

Abstract:

This article focuses on gender mainstreaming policies and advocacy on equality in the post-tsunami context in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Through the analysis this article illustrates how gender mainstreaming policy documents and gender advocacy of the provincial and central government, when drawing from sex/gender division and binary of genders, reproduce heteronormative boundaries. By focusing on details, I argue that the image of the heteronormative nuclear family participates in normalizing other identity categories; such as urban and middle-class. I also provide examples of how simultaneous to the production of dominant norms, gender advocacy challenges heteronormativity and norms governing heterosexuality and actively question the dominant gender norms. Drawn from postcolonial feminist and recent queer critiques, I argue that advocacy that solely focuses on gender and/or sexuality reduces human bodies and their desires to simplistic stick figures. Thus, it remains blind to other forms of violence, such as global economic and political frameworks that define 'building back better' primarily as recovery and rehabilitation of economy, assets and labour force.

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, LGBTQ, Political Economies, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2010

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