Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

India

Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir

Citation:

Osuri, Goldie. 2018. “Sovereignty, Vulnerability, and a Gendered Resistance in Indian-Occupied Kashmir.” Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal 3 (2): 228–43.

Author: Goldie Osuri

Abstract:

Drawing on Iffat Fatima’s documentary film, Khoon Diy Baarav or Blood Leaves its Trail (2015), this paper explores how a gendered Kashmiri activism against human rights violations allows for reenvisioning the concept of an authoritarian and violent Westphalian sovereignty concerned with exclusive political authority and territory. Previous studies of gendered resistance are examined as are reformulations of sovereignty through feminist and Indigenous critiques. Through these examinations, the paper offers a way to rethink sovereignty through the theoretical concept of vulnerability. Such a rethinking of sovereignty may point to an interrelational model of sovereignty where the vulnerability of gendered bodies and the environment may be emphasised. In the context of human rights violations in Kashmir, this reenvisioning of sovereignty may be a necessary counter to the repetitious cycles of necropolitical sovereign power.

Keywords: Gender and sovereignty, Kashmir, human rights, vulnerability, resistance and activism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Governance, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan

Year: 2018

New Patriotisms: The Beauty Queen and the Bomb

Citation:

Sangari, Kumkum. 2004. “New Patriotisms: The Beauty Queen and the Bomb.” In From Gender to Nation, edited by Rada Ivekovic and Julie Mostov, 153–70. New Dehli: Zubaan.

Author: Kumkum Sangari

Annotation:

Summary:
"The significant literature on gender and nationalism generated in the past decade shows that the emphasis on women as biological reproducers or members of a bounded collectivity, and the centrality of womanhood to the ideological reproduction of the nation are common to a variety of nationalisms. Yet the ideological distinctions between nationalisms remain significant. Given the intertwined legacies of colonialism, the patriarchal assumptions in nationalism, and the particularism of the Hindu right-wing, definitions of Indian culture have always been problematic, especially in the way they cast the "nation" as an entity affected and endangered by the "west". The secular, multireligious or more inclusive nationalisms that emerged in the colonial period were implicated in the specific types of antifeminism and new conservatism that crystallized around anticolonialism; however, they cannot be confused with the obsessive particularisms that attempted to seize nationalism and twist it to their own ends. These particularisms sought the aura of nationalism but pushed for a single majoritarian religious identity, and a tighter patriarchy by polarizing an alien, "selfgenerated" and modem "west". Neither anticolonialism, nor antiwesternism, nor antimodernity could guarantee national authenticity since they were shaped in a two-way cultural traffic marked by recursivity, transformation, resistance and ideological collaboration. They, did however, produce a powerful imaginary India exemplified in its nonmodern or antimodern areas (notably a subsuming religiosity and chaste, self-sacrificing women) to be preserved, an India that was most emphatically (though not exclusively) deployed by the Hindu right" (Sangari 2004, 153).

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gendered Discourses, Nationalism, Religion, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2004

Inventing Saffron History: A Celibate Hero Rescues an Emasculated Nation

Citation:

Chakravarti, Uma. 2000. “Inventing Saffron History: A Celibate Hero Rescues an Emasculated Nation.” In A Question of Silence? The Sexual Economies of Modern India, edited by Janaki Nair and Mary E. John, 243–68. London and New York: Zed Books.

Author: Uma Chakravarti

Annotation:

Summary:
"A standard and well-rehearsed method of dealing with the crisis of the present is to write about or 're'construct the 'nation's' 'glorious' past...Today's political and social crisis and the panacea for it, are not being expressed through powerful writing but through the visual media, cinema and television" (Chakravarti 2000, 244). 

Topics: Caste, Class, Gender, Governance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2000

Property Rights and Gender Bias: Evidence from Land Reform in West Bengal

Citation:

Bhalotra, Sonia, Abhishek Chakravarty, Dilip Mookherjee, and Francisco J. Pino. 2016. “Property Rights and Gender Bias: Evidence from Land Reform in West Bengal.” IZA Discussion Paper 9930, The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Bonn, Germany. 

Authors: Sonia Bhalotra, Abhishek Chakravarty, Dilip Mookherjee, Francisco J. Pino

Abstract:

While land reforms are typically pursued in order to raise productivity and reduce inequality across households, an unintended consequence may be increased within-household gender inequality. We analyse a tenancy registration programme in West Bengal, and find that it increased child survival and reduced fertility. However, we also find that it intensified son preference in families without a first-born son to inherit the land title. These families exhibit no reduction in fertility, an increase in the probability that a subsequent birth is male, and a substantial increase in the survival advantage of subsequent sons over daughters.

Keywords: land reform, gender, infant mortality, sex ratio, fertility, Property Rights

Topics: Development, Economies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2016

The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2009. “The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India.” Environmental Hazards 8 (1): 5–22.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Benett

Abstract:

Sociological and anthropological studies in India reveal that caste, class and gender in everyday life are both rigid and dynamic, but little is known about how they influence the survival mechanisms of women during ‘multiple disasters’, nor about how women negotiate with these structural mores to meet their cultural and biological needs. This is explored through the experiences of 12 women-headed households from different social castes in Orissa, India. Multiple disasters or disasters that occur in ‘one specific place’ (such as floods, cyclone and drought) are regular events in coastal parts of the state of Orissa. The super-cyclone of 1999, two floods of 2001 and 2003 and drought of 2000 and 2002 form the case study. Participant observation, in-depth interviews and documentary evidence complement the fieldwork. The findings suggest a complex interplay of caste, class and gender in surviving the multiple disasters including structural mutability under the purview of social organization. In doing so, women demonstrated their individual and collective agencies in order to meet their cultural and biological needs under severe crisis. This research stresses that gender and disaster studies must include a consideration of caste and class for effective disaster management and social vulnerability reduction.

Keywords: gender, multiple disasters, Orissa, women-headed households, class, caste

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2009

The Role of Self-Help Groups in Post-Tsunami Rehabilitation

Citation:

Larson, Grant, Julie Drolet, and Miriam Samuel. 2015. “The Role of Self-Help Groups in Post-Tsunami Rehabilitation.” International Social Work 58 (5): 732–42.

Authors: Grant Larson, Julie Drolet, Miriam Samuel

Abstract:

This article provides an analysis of the importance of self-help groups for women in post-tsunami rehabilitation efforts in Tamil Nadu, India. The finding is one of eight key themes identified in a larger study of the long-term social, economic and gender implications of post-tsunami rehabilitation work. While self-help groups were reported as having provided women with a measure of new social and economic opportunities, status and power, little evidence existed for a substantial reduction of poverty levels or a change in the prevailing patriarchal attitudes. The authors suggest that multiple long-term sustainable approaches to post-disaster reconstruction are needed to provide fundamental social and economic change for women.

Keywords: India, rehabilitation, self-help, tsunami, women

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals

Citation:

Bhadra, Subhasis. 2017. “Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 8 (2): 196–207.

Author: Subhasis Bhadra

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with their holistic perspective of development are focused on different issues of vulnerability. This article highlights the situation of women in disasters and the challenges in achieving the MDGs with special reference to India. It is accepted that there is no disaster without human engagement and that issues of differential impact on genders is an essential consideration for recovery. The international guidelines on disaster management and intervention have a considerable focus on gender equality, balance, mainstreaming, and sensitive programing, yet the situation is quite grim. India still lacks separate policy guidelines on gender aspects in disaster. In the twenty-first century, India has witnessed a series of disasters in different parts of the country. The author’s personal experiences of working in intervention programs of these disasters showed that gender vulnerability depends on various factors like the intensity of the disaster impact, local sociocultural perspectives, effective disaster intervention strategies, the specific focus on issues of women in training of personnel, and gender-sensitive disaster intervention programs in the community. In the context of the MDGs, while development has become a priority concern to end age-old inequalities in society, the added challenge of disasters needs considerable focus on gender inequalities to achieve the goal of gender equity.
 

Keywords: Disaster intervention strategies, gender inequalities, gender vulnerability, India, Millennium Development Goals

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2017

The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2010. “The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters.” Disasters 34 (1): 240-60.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in ‘multiple disasters’. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that micro-credit is a useful tool to replace women’s livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

Keywords: microcredit, multiple disasters, Orissa, vulnerability, women-headed households

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2010

Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India

Citation:

Pincha, Chaman. 2008. Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India. Mumbai: Earthworm Books.

Author: Chaman Pincha

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This study attempts to analyze the differential impact of the Tsunami on men, women, and Aravanis. It captures the experience of the most marginalized communities and of the women within them, i.e., experiences of unmarried girls, widows without children as against those of widows with children. Although the analysis focuses on women’s lives, it does so with the understanding that their lives operate within a system of gender inequalities and gender power relations. The study also focuses on understanding the role played by NGOs at the time of the Tsunami, as they were working actively alongside government agencies in the delivery of relief and development of rehabilitation programs. An attempt has been made to look at the gender mainstreaming strategies of NGOs, an area, which has hitherto not been systematically analyzed. This initiative by the gender researcher and her team was made under the auspices of Anawim Trust and with support from Oxfam America to understand and analyze the steps taken by NGOs to enhance the agency of women, vulnerable men, and excluded groups (such as Aravanis), with the purpose of cross-agency learning and replication. This work therefore documents both the good practices as well as missed opportunities with the belief that these will deepen our understanding of “what works” and “what does not” in integrating the SGNs and PGNs of both men and women in disaster response and preparedness” (Pincha 2008, 12-13).
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
 
2. Gender Differential Impacts of Tsunami 
 
3. NGO's Gender Mainstreaming Strategies: An Analysis
 
4. Toward Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming Efforts
 
5. Mainstreaming Gender in Disaster Management: Opportunities and Future Challenges 
 
6. Annex - 1
 
7. Annex - 2 
 
8. Annex - 3

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2008

Climate Change, Water and Gender: Impact and Adaptation in North-Eastern Hills of India

Citation:

Singh, Nandita, and Om Prakash Singh. 2015. “Climate Change, Water and Gender: Impact and Adaptation in North-Eastern Hills of India.” International Social Work 58 (3): 375–84.

Authors: Nandita Singh, Om Prakash Singh

Abstract:

Water resources in India are projected to face severe climate-induced stress. In the North-Eastern Hill region, where lifestyles are closely connected to nature, this holds great implications for human development. While scientific knowledge regarding climate change and water is growing at global and regional scales, an equally diverse body of knowledge on the human dimensions of the same at local levels is weak. This article attempts to bridge this knowledge gap by presenting micro-level evidence on the gendered impact of increasing water stress and the innovative gendered local adaptive strategies in this region. It urges for the need to re-think on adaptation planning, basing it on local templates for greater sustainability.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, gender, India, water

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - India