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Trafficking in Humans Social, Cultural and Political Dimensions


Cameron, Sally, and Edward Newman. 2008. Trafficking in Humans Social, Cultural and Political Dimensions. New York: United Nations University Press. 

Authors: Sally Cameron, Edward Newman


Brings social, economic and political elements to the policy discussion as well as strategic interventions regarding the fight against "trafficking" (the recruitment and transportation of human beings through deception and coercion for the purposes of exploitation). Trafficking, generally, occurs from poorer to more prosperous countries and regions; however, it is not necessarily the poorest regions or communities which are most vulnerable to trafficking, and so this volume seeks to identify the factors which explain where and why vulnerability increases. –Publisher's description.

“[This] volume examines the proposition that in this era of globalization, liberal economic forces have resulted in the erosion of state capacity and a weakening of the provision of public goods…A certain alignment of factors may be key to understanding trafficking. The principle focus of this volume is to understand the distinction and dialectical interaction between structural and proximate factors.”


Table of Contents:

1. Introduction: Understanding human trafficking/Edward Newman and Sally Cameron

Part I: Themes:

2. Trafficking in humans: Structural factors/Sally Cameron and Edward Newman
3. Globalization and national sovereignty: From migration to trafficking/ Kinsey Alden Dinan
4. Trafficking of women for prostitution/Sally Cameron
5. Migrant women and the legal politics of anti-trafficking interventions/Ratna Kapur
6. Trafficking in women: The role of transnational organized crime/Phil Williams

Part II: Regional experiences

7. The fight against trafficking in human beings from the European perspective/Helga Konrad
8. Human trafficking in East and South-East Asia: Searching for structural factors/Maruja M. B. Asis
9. Human trafficking in Latin America in the context of international migration/Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro
10. Human trafficking in South Asia: A focus on Nepal/Renu Rajbhandari
11. Trafficking in persons in the South Caucasus – Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia: New challenges for transitional democracies/Gulnara Shahinian


Recognize that trafficking is gendered

Gender analysis offers increased possibilities to understand the specifics of why certain women are trafficked into certain regions/industries and develop appropriate (often long-term) responses. As a starting point, women are being trafficked from states offering them limited opportunities outside the hard toil and drudgery of the home, the farm and unregulated markets. “Rescuing” women and sending them home does not affect that, and thus will not alter the principal push factors which make women vulnerable to trafficking. At the same time, there is a failure to understand and acknowledge fully the trafficking of men. While there is some writing about men working in exploitative, indentured or slave-like conditions, much of this has not been contextualized within a trafficking framework. Similarly, there must be greater recognition that children are trafficked. For too long the popular image of trafficking victims – young women coerced into prostitution – has influenced policy responses, but this is only a part of the reality.” (16)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Americas, Central America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, South Caucasus Countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Nepal

Year: 2008

Traumatic Masculinities: The Gendered Geographies of Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia


Kabachnik, Peter, Magdalena Grabowska, Joanna Regulska, Beth Mitchneck, and Olga V. Mayorova. 2013. “Traumatic Masculinities: The Gendered Geographies of Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 20 (6): 773–93.

Authors: Peter Kabachnik, Magdalena Grabowska, Joanna Regulska, Beth Mitchneck, Olga V. Mayorova


Over 200,000 people became internally displaced after several violent conflicts in the early 1990s in Georgia. For many internally displaced persons (IDPs), gender relations have been transformed significantly. This translates to many women taking on the role of breadwinner for their family, which often is accompanied by the process of demasculinization for men. In this article, we examine the construction of masculinities and analyze the gendered processes of displacement and living in post-displacement for Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia. We identify the formation of ‘traumatic masculinities’ as a result of the threats to, though not usurpation of, hegemonic masculinities. Drawing on interviews, we highlight how IDPs conceptualize gender norms and masculinities in Georgia. Despite the disruptions that displacement has brought about, with the subsequent challenges to IDPs' ideal masculine roles, the discourses of hegemonic masculinities still predominate amongst IDPs. We further illustrate this point by identifying two separate gendered discourses of legitimization that attempt to reconcile hegemonic masculinities with the current contexts and circumstances that IDPs face. These new traumatic masculinities do coexist with hegemonic masculinities, although the latter are reformed and redefined as a result of the new contexts and new places within which they are performed.

Keywords: masculinities, displacement, internally dispaced persons, trauma, Georgia

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 2013

Cultural Responses to Changing Gender Patterns of Migration in Georgia


Hofmann, Erin Trouth and Cynthia J. Buckley. 2011. “Cultural Responses to Changing Gender Patterns of Migration in Georgia.” International Migration 50 (5): 77-94.

Authors: Erin Trouth Hofmann, Cynthia J. Buckley


In this paper, we explore how individual women cope with the tensions between economic forces encouraging temporary labour migration and cultural norms tying “proper” women to their homes and families. Combining in-depth interviews with returned migrant women in the Georgian capital of Tbilisi with secondary migration data for the region, we illustrate the recent increases in Georgian women’s participation in international labour migration. Deteriorating economic conditions in Georgia leave women with few local opportunities to financially support their families, while institutional changes have altered the accessibility and attractiveness of international destinations, leading to increasing motivations and opportunities for women’s migration. Focusing on the contradictions between growing female migration and persistent adherence to cultural norms stigmatizing migration in Georgia, we explore the cognitive strategies migrant women employ in an attempt to balance internalized perceptions of acceptable gendered behaviour with their migration choices. Two key pathways of adaptation emerge: framing migration as a necessity rather than a choice and stressing the unique and individually exceptional nature of their own migration experience. We posit that these strategies may serve to limit the norm-challenging nature of women’s migration in Georgia. Although migration is often described as an empowering experience for women, if women migrants work to present their migration in a way that fits within the bounds of traditional gender norms, these norms may be strengthened rather than challenged.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Women, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 2011

Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health in Post-Socialist Georgia: Does Internal Displacement Matter?


Buckley, Cynthia J., and Khatuna Doliashvili. 2008. “Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health in Post-Socialist Georgia: Does Internal Displacement Matter?” International Family Planning Perspectives 34 (1): 21–29.

Authors: Cynthia J. Buckley, Khatuna Doliashvili


Persons displaced by armed conflicts, natural disasters or other events are at increased risk for health problems. The Republic of Georgia has a substantial population of internally displaced women who may face elevated risks of STIs and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 2008

Stable Instability of Displaced People in Western Georgia: A Food-Security and Gender Survey after Five Years


Vivero Pol, Jose Luis. 1999. “Stable Instability of Displaced People in Western Georgia: A Food-Security and Gender Survey after Five Years.” Journal of Refugee Studies 12 (4): 349-66.

Author: Jose Luis Vivero Pol


The Caucasus is one of the most troubled hotspots in the world, with the Georgian—Abkhazian conflict already lasting seven years. In conflict between 1992 and 1998, more than 100,000 people have been displaced to western Georgia, many of them twice. The paper examines the way this exile has severely affected their gender roles in production activities, with the collapse of the Soviet Union exacerbating the situation. Displaced women have increasingly become main household income earners working in petty trade and agriculture, while displaced men have a reduced role and an apathetic response to the situation. The paper examines the main food sources, concluding that there is no lack of food availability or food access, and highlighting the importance of the kinship network between the host and displaced community. Finally guidelines for future programmes are suggested, with a recommendation to include projects targeting men.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 1999

Terror-Crime Nexus? Terrorism and Arms, Drug, and Human Trafficking in Georgia


Traughber, Colleen M. 2007. “Terror-Crime Nexus? Terrorism and Arms, Drug, and Human Trafficking in Georgia.” Connections 6 (1): 47–64.

Author: Colleen M. Traughber

Topics: Terrorism, Trafficking, Arms Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Central Asia, Europe Countries: Georgia

Year: 2007

Women in the Decade of Transition: The Case of Georgia


Sabedashvili, Tamar. 2002. Women in the Decade of Transition: The Case of Georgia. Tbilisi: Heinrich Böll Foundation.

Author: Tamar Sabedashvili

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 2002

Conditions of Women in Georgia


Gender Development Association. 1999. Conditions of Women in Georgia. Tbilisi, Georgia: United Nations Development Programme.

Author: Gender Development Association

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Central Asia, Europe, South Caucasus Countries: Georgia

Year: 1999

Gender and Conflict

Microsoft Office document icon Gender and Conflict - Tutberidze.doc46.5 KB
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