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Ecuador

Gendered Access to Formal and Informal Resources in Postdisaster Development in the Ecuadorian Andes

Citation:

Faas, A. J., Eric Jones, Linda Whiteford, Graham Tobin, and Arthur Murphy. 2014. “Gendered Access to Formal and Informal Resources in Postdisaster Development in the Ecuadorian Andes.” Mountain Research and Development 34 (3): 223–34.

Authors: A.J. Faas, Eric Jones, Linda Whiteford, Graham Tobin, Arthur Murphy

Abstract:

The devastating eruptions of Mount Tungurahua in the Ecuadorian highlands in 1999 and 2006 left many communities struggling to rebuild their homes and others permanently displaced to settlements built by state and nongovernmental organizations. For several years afterward, households diversified their economic strategies to compensate for losses, communities organized to promote local development, and the state and nongovernmental organizations sponsored many economic recovery programs in the affected communities. Our study examined the ways in which gender and gender roles were associated with different levels and paths of access to scarce resources in these communities. Specifically, this article contrasts the experiences of men and women in accessing household necessities and project assistance through formal institutions and informal networks. We found that women and men used different types of informal social support networks, with men receiving significantly more material, emotional, and informational support than women. We also found that men and women experienced different challenges and advantages when pursuing support through local and extralocal institutions and that these institutions often coordinated in ways that reified their biases. We present a methodology that is replicable in a wide variety of disaster, resettlement, and development settings, and we advocate an inductive, evidence-based approach to policy, built upon an understanding of local gender, class, and ethnic dynamics affecting access to formal and informal resources. This evidence should be used to build more robust local institutions that can resist wider social and cultural pressures for male dominance and gendered exclusion.

Keywords: disaster, resettlement, gender, social support, reciprocity, Andes

Topics: Class, Development, Displacement & Migration, Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, NGOs Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women's Property Rights in Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Jacqueline Contreras, and Jennifer Twyman. 2o14.  “Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women’s Property Rights in Ecuador.” Latin American Perspectives 41 (1): 143–65.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Jacqueline Contreras, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Patrimonial violence, defined minimally as the violation of women’s property rights, is increasingly recognized as a form of gender violence, along with physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Research in Ecuador on the extent to which women are aware of their property rights and the situations in which patrimonial violence is most likely to occur shows that, while most women seem to be aware of certain fundamentals, there are many misconceptions, particularly regarding the status of individual property. Women’s lack of legal knowledge often undermines their ability to obtain their rightful share of the division of property upon separation, divorce, or widowhood. Moreover, patrimonial violence is often aggravated by the presence of other forms of violence against women.

Keywords: gender violence, women's property rights, assets, Ecuador

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Property Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen D, and Jennifer Twyman. “¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador.” Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 11, no. 3 (2014): 425–440.

Authors: Carmen D. Deere, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Este trabajo investiga si las mujeres propietarias de parcelas participan en las decisiones agrícolas sobre ellas. Con base en una muestra nacional de Ecuador, el análisis demuestra que la gran mayoría de mujeres dueñas participan activamente en la conducción de sus parcelas, sean éstas propiedades de ellas de manera individual o en conjunto con su pareja. También revela que hay diferencias en el nivel de participación de las mujeres, dependiendo de su estado civil o situación marital (si son casadas o unidas en comparación con jefas de hogar solteras, separadas, divorciadas o viudas) y de la forma de la propiedad. Además, su participación varía según la decisión agrícola bajo consideración. De todos modos, nuestro análi­sis conduce a una conclusión sobresaliente: los datos censales proporcionan una visión distorsionada de la agricultura fa­miliar porque no se toma en cuenta que las decisiones agrí­colas son tomadas frecuentemente por la pareja y conllevan a una subestimación de la participación de las mujeres casadas/unidas como agricultoras. (Abstract from original source)
 
This study investigates whether women landowners participate in the agricultural decisions about their plots. Based on a national sample from Ecuador, the analysis shows that the large majority of women owners participate actively in the conduction of their plots, whether they are their property individually or jointly with their couple. It also reveals that there are differences in the level of participation of women, depending on their marital status (whether they are married or united, in comparison to heads of households who are single, separated, divorced or widows) and the form of property. Also, their participation varies depending on the agricultural decision under consideration. In any case, our analysis leads to an outstanding conclusion: the census data provide a distorted vision of family agriculture because they do not take into account that agricultural decisions are frequently made by the couple, and they lead to an underestimation of the participation of women married/united as agricultural producers. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank

Citation:

Bedford, Kate. 2009. Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Author: Kate Bedford

Annotation:

Summary:
A critique of how the World Bank encourages gender norms, Developing Partnerships argues that financial institutions are key players in the global enforcement of gender and family expectations. By combining analysis of documents produced and sponsored by the World Bank with interviews of World Bank staffers and case studies, Kate Bedford presents a detailed examination of gender and sexuality in the policies of the world's most influential development institution (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Working women, caring men, and the family bank : ideal gender relations after the Washington consensus 
 
2. The model region remodels partnerships : the politics of gender research in Latin America and the Caribbean
 
3. Forging partnerships, sidelining child care : how Ecuadorian femocrats navigate institutional constraints in World Bank gender policy
 
4. Roses mean love : export promotion and the restructuring of intimacy in Ecuador
 
5. Cultures of saving and loving : ethnodevelopment, gender, and heteronormativity in Prodepine
 
6. Holding it together : family strengthening in Argentina.
 
 

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, International Financial Institutions, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Ecuador

Year: 2009

Women, Nature, and Development in Sites of Ecuador’s Petroleum Circuit

Citation:

Cielo, Cristina, Lisset Coba, and Ivette Vallejo. 2016. “Women, Nature, and Development in Sites of Ecuador’s Petroleum Circuit.” Economic Anthropology 3 (1): 119–32. doi:10.1002/sea2.12049.

Authors: Cristina Cielo, Lisset Coba, Ivette Vallejo

Abstract:

This article argues that the contradictory character of Ecuador’s current development project is made evident through a focus on energy resource management from a feminist ecological perspective. The hydrocarbon exploitation fundamental to these projects transforms women’s roles in social reproduction and production, their relationship with nature, and their dependence on state-institutionalized energy regimes. We examine changes in women’s territorially based work of care at sites in Ecuador’s petroleum circuit. An ethnographic focus on the transformation of women’s daily lives at sites of petroleum exploration, exploitation, and processing in Ecuador reveals an often overlooked dimension of the socioenvironmental conflicts produced by the intensification of national economic insertion into the global energy market. This article thus examines the intersection of state development policies and the gendered construction of subjects of development. The exploitation of natural resources transforms the meanings and values of nature and development, of women’s work of care, and of the participation of these in different energy regimes.

Keywords: care work, ecofeminism, development, petroleum circuit, Ecuadorian Amazon

Topics: Development, Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, conflict, Infrastructure, Energy, Political Economies Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2016

Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Perez Fragoso, Lucia, and Corina Rodriguez Enriquez. 2016. “Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/153. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lucia Perez Fragoso, Corina Rodriguez Enriquez

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to fiscal policy and administration that integrates considerations of women's equality and advancement into the budget. Latin American countries have undertaken diverse gender budgeting initiatives, most of them addressing public expenditures. This paper surveys and assesses some key initiatives, including those in Mexico, Mexico City, Ecuador, Bolivia, and El Salvador, and briefly summarizes others. The five key initiatives offer different perspectives on how countries approach gender budgeting. We find that these initiatives are contributing to the reduction of gender inequality and the advancement of women in Latin America, though there is scope to strengthen them.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, Latin America, gender inequality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico

Year: 2016

States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America

Citation:

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2015. “States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America.” Latin American Politics and Society 57 (3): 27–49. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2015.00278.x.

Author: Jennifer M. Piscopo

Abstract:

This article examines two decades of strengthening, expansion, and diffusion of gender quota laws in Latin America. The analysis departs from studies of quotas’ adoption, numerical effectiveness, or policy impacts, instead focusing on states’ use of coercive power to integrate women into public and private institutions. Viewing these policies in light of feminist theories of the poststructuralist state reveals how state institutions act to restructure government and promote gender equality. In building this argument, the article presents an up-to-date empirical survey and conceptual understanding of quota evolution in Latin America, including recent developments in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Quotas Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay

Year: 2015

Development Alternatives

Citation:

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. “Development Alternatives.” Development and Change 46 (4): 855–74. doi:10.1111/dech.12179.

Author: Sarah A. Radcliffe

Abstract:

Development alternatives arguably emerge out of practices, negotiations and critiques of dominant development narratives and paradigms. Critical Development Studies’ (CDS) practices of insightful critique and a willingness to challenge hegemonic paradigms are alive and well. Yet this article argues that CDS could fruitfully pay attention to emergent issues that have yet to receive sustained analysis and critique. The article focuses on three very different registers of development futures: evolutionary and resilience-base thinking; post-neoliberal experiments in Latin America; and the challenge of social heterogeneity. After summarizing the issues involved with respect to each topic, the article suggests some aspects that require further research and debate.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, Venezuela

Year: 2015

Gender, Neoliberalism and Post-Neoliberalism: Re-Assessing the Institutionalisation of Women’s Struggles for Survival in Ecuador and Venezuela

Citation:

Lind, Amy. 2010. “Gender, Neoliberalism and Post-Neoliberalism: Re-Assessing the Institutionalisation of Women’s Struggles for Survival in Ecuador and Venezuela.” In The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Amy Lind

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Globalization, Political Economies, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador, Venezuela

Year: 2010

Eventually the Mine Will Come: Women Anti-Mining Activists’ Everyday Resilience in Opposing Resource Extraction in the Andes

Citation:

Jenkins, Katy, and Glevys Rondón. 2015. “‘Eventually the Mine Will Come’: Women Anti-Mining Activists’ Everyday Resilience in Opposing Resource Extraction in the Andes.” Gender & Development 23 (3): 415–31.

Authors: Katy Jenkins, Glevys Rondón

Abstract:

This article explores the experiences of women anti-mining activists in rural communities in Andean Peru and Ecuador. The article analyses women activists’ experience of negotiating conflicts with large-scale mining companies, as well as within their communities, using the concept of resilience to understand their continued commitment to this work in a context of conflict, intimidation, and violence. Women activists’ resilience is demonstrated in their determination to fight the arrival of mining, despite being among an increasingly small minority of their communities who continue to oppose the mining companies; their commitment to collective action and to occupying their lands; and their tenacity in campaigning against resource extraction while simultaneously recognising that ‘eventually the mine will come’.

Keywords: gender, activism, extractive industries, Latin America, Resilience

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador, Peru

Year: 2015

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