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Cameroon

Women’s Land Rights and Working Conditions in Large-Scale Plantations in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Fonjong, Lotsmart. 2016. “Women’s Land Rights and Working Conditions in Large-Scale Plantations in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Africa Development 41 (3): 49–69.

Author: Lotsmart Fonjong

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Women’s land rights are fundamental for women’s economic empowerment. Increasingly, the nationalization of customary land and the current growth in private land ownership and commercial farming are exerting strong pressure on land and are a threat to women’s usufruct land rights. The discourse over land reforms in most poor African countries like Cameroon is embedded in the evolutionary models where customary landholding systems are changing into state land ownership with greater market integration. These changes are taking place within limited state protection of communal and women’s land rights in the process of land registration. This article discusses the evolution, actors and activities involved in large-scale land acquisitions in the sub region within the framework and women’s rights to land and working conditions in the plantations. Through simple mapping from an in-depth desktop review and some level of field observations and conversations with some of the actors involved in affected localities in Cameroon, the article highlights women’s experiences as customary communal land is transferred into private ownership. In fact, wherever land has been taken up for plantation agriculture, women’s access to land has reduced, making them more vulnerable to hunger, poverty and poor working conditions. This is because women’s land rights have not evolved with the customary evolution into private tenures. Current processes of large-scale land acquisitions should therefore create conditions for women’s participation through a fair degree of equal opportunities, transparency, and accountability to communities, and relevant institutions.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT: 
Les droits fonciers des femmes sont fondamentaux pour leur autonomisation économique. De plus en plus, la nationalisation des terres coutumières et la croissance actuelle de la propriété foncière privée et de l’agriculture commerciale exercent une forte pression sur les terres et constituent une menace pour les droits d’usufruit fonciers des femmes. Le discours sur les réformes foncières dans la plupart des pays africains pauvres comme le Cameroun s’inscrit dans les modèles évolutifs où les systèmes fonciers coutumiers se transforment en propriété foncière étatique avec une plus grande intégration du marché. Ces changements se produisent dans le cadre d’une protection limitée de l’État sur les droits communaux et les droits fonciers des femmes dans le processus d’enregistrement foncier. Le présent article traite de l’évolution, des acteurs et des activités en matière d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle dans la sous- région ainsi que des droits fonciers des femmes et leurs conditions de travail dans les plantations. Grâce à une cartographie simple faite à partir d’une revue documentaire approfondie, d’observations sur le terrain et de conversations avec certains des acteurs impliqués dans les localités touchées au Cameroun, cet article souligne les expériences des femmes face à la transformation des terres communales coutumières en propriété privée. En fait, partout où la terre est utilisée pour l’agriculture, l’accès des femmes à celle-ci a diminué, les rendant plus vulnérables à la famine, la pauvreté et aux mauvaises conditions de travail. C’est parce que les droits fonciers des femmes n’ont pas évolué au rythme de la transformation des terres costumières en tenures privées. Les processus actuels d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle devraient donc créer des conditions propices à la participation des femmes, par l’équité des chances, la transparence et la reddition de comptes par les communautés et les institutions concernées.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2016

Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

Citation:

Gladwin, Christina H, ed. 1991. Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Gainesville: University of Florida Press: Center for African Studies, University of Florida.

Author: Christina H. Gladwin

Annotation:

Summary: 
Focuses on the debates surrounding structural lending programmes and the effect they have on women in Africa. It questions the conventional dependency model and provides some counter-evidence that the economic position of women in societies with freer market policies has improved (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Structural adjustment and structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa
Stephen O'Brien
 
2. Women, structural adjustment, and transformation: some lessons and questions from the African experience
Uma Lele
 
3. Getting priorities right: structural transformation and strategic notions
Bruce F. Johnston
 
4. Policies to overcome the negative effects of structural adjustment programs on African female-headed households
Jean M. Due
 
5. Impact of structural adjustment programs on Women and their households in Bendel and Ogun States, Nigeria
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
6. Women and structural adjustment in Zaire
Brooke Schoef et al.
 
7. Impact of structural adjustment programs on rural women in Tanzania
Ruth Meena
 
8. Fertilizer subsidy removal programs and their potential impacts on women farmers in Malawi and Cameroon
Christina H. Gladwin
 
9. Women traders in Ghana and the structural adjustment program
Gracia Clark and Takyiwaa Manuh
 
10. Ideology and political economy of gender: women and land in Nso, Cameroon
Miriam Goheen
 
11. Women's agricultural work in a multimodal rural economy: Ibarapa District, Oyo State, Nigeria
Jane I. Guyer with Olukemi Idowu
 
12. Structural transformation and its consequences for Orma women pastoralists
Jean Ensminger
 
13. New women's organizations in Nigeria: one response to structural adjustment
Lillian Trager and Clara Osinulu
 
14. Role of home economics agents in rural development programs in northern Nigeria: impacts of structural adjustment
Comfort B. Olayiwole
 
15. Curriculum planning for women and agricultural households: the case of Cameroon
Suzanna Smith, Barbara Taylor
 
16. Women farmers, structural adjustment, and FAO's plan of action for integration of women in development
Anita Spring and Vicki Wilde.
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania

Year: 1991

Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts

Citation:

Archambault, Caroline, and Annelies Zoomers, eds. 2015. Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. London and New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315765822.

Authors: Caroline Archambault, Annelies Zoomers

Annotation:

This book explores the gendered dimensions of recent land governance transformations across the globe in the wake of unprecedented pressures on land and natural resources. These complex contemporary forces are reconfiguring livelihoods and impacting women’s positions, their tenure security and well-being, and that of their families.

Bringing together fourteen empirical community case studies from around the world, the book examines governance transformations of land and land-based resources resulting from four major processes of tenure change: commercial land based investments, the formalization of customary tenure, the privatization of communal lands, and post-conflict resettlement and redistribution reforms. Each contribution carefully analyses the gendered dimensions of these transformations, exploring both the gender impact of the land tenure reforms and the social and political economy within which these reforms materialize. The cases provide important insights for decision makers to better promote and design an effective gender lens into land tenure reforms and natural resource management policies. (Summary from Taylor & Francis eBooks)

Table of Contents:
Introduction 
 
Part 1: From Farm to Firm: A Bad Deal for Women? 
 
1. Gender, Land and Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR  
 
2. Women and Benefit Sharing in Large Scale Land Deals: A Mining Case Study from Papua New Guinea  
 
3. A Women's World or the Return of Men? The Gendered Impacts of Residential Tourism in Costa Rica  
 
Part 2: From de Facto to de Jure: Formalizing Patriarchy in the Codification of Customary Tenure?  
 
4. Cameroon's Community Forests Program and Women's Income Generation from Non-Timber Forest Products: Negative impacts and potential solutions  
 
5. Gendered Mobilization: Women and the Politics of Indigenous Land Claims in Argentina  
 
6. Joint Land Titles in Madagascar: The gendered outcome of a "gender neutral" land tenure reform  
 
7. Land Titling and Women's Decision-Making in West Bengal  
 
Part 3: From Common Property to Private Holdings: A Tragedy for the Commoners?  
 
8. "One Doesn't Sell One's Parents:" Gendered Experiences of Shifting Tenure Regimes in the Agricultural Plain of the Sais in Morocco  
 
9. Aging Ejidos in the Wake of Neo-Liberal Reform: Livelihood Predicaments of Mexican Ejidatarias  
 
10. Women's Forestland Rights in the Collective Forestland Reforms in China: Fieldword Findings and Policy Recommendations  
 
11. Gendered Perspectives on Rangeland Privatization among the Maasai of Southern Kenya  
 
Part 4: From Conflict to Peace: An Opportunity for Gender Reconstruction?  
 
12. Reproducing Patriarchy on Resettled Lands: A lost opportunity in reconstituting women's land rights in the fast track land reform program in Zimbabwe  
 
13. Resigning Their Rights? Impediments to women's property ownership in Kosovo  
 
14. Strengthening Women's Land Rights while Recognizing Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries

Citation:

Graham, Jay P., Mitsuaki Hirai, and Seung-Sup Kim. 2016. “An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” PLOS ONE 11 (6): e0155981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155981.

Authors: Jay P. Graham, Mitsuaki Hirai, Seung-Sup Kim

Abstract:

Background

It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times.

Objectives

This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries.

Methods

We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries.

Results

Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs).

Conclusion

In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe

Year: 2016

Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Citation:

Tsikata, Dzodzi, and Pamela Golah. 2010. Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Dzodzi Tsikata, Pamela Golah

Abstract:

Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. A central theme is the people's resistance to global forces, frequently through an insistence on the uniqueness of their livelihoods." "For instance, in the Amazon, the focus is on the social movements that have emerged in the context of struggles over land rights concerning the extraction of Brazil nuts and babatu kernels in an increasingly globalised market. In Viet Nam, the process of 'de-collectivising' rights to land is examined with a view to understanding ho* gender and other social differences are reworked in a market economy." "The book addresses a gap in the literature on land tenure and gender in developing countries. It raises new questions about the process of globalisation, particularly about who the actors are (local people, the state, NGOs, multinational companies) and the shifting relations amongst them. The book also challenges the very concepts of gender, land and globalisation. (Abstract from WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
2. Gender, Land Tenure and Globalisation: Exploring the Conceptual Ground
 Fiona D. Mackenzie 
 
3. Gender, Globalisation and Land Tenure: Methodological Challenges and Insights
Allison Goebel
 
4. Economic Liberalisation, Changing Resource Tenures and Gendered Livelihoods: A Study of Small-Scale Gold Mining and Mangrove Exploitation in Rural Ghana
Mariama Awumbila and Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
5. The Politics of Gender, Land and Compensation in Communities Traversed by the Chad- Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project in Cameroon
Joyce B.M. Endeley
 
6. Facing Globalisation: Gender and Land at Stake in the Amazonian Forests of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru 
Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Luciene Dias Figueiredo, Elda Vera Gonzalez, Sissy Bello Nakashima and Alfredo Wagner B. de Almeida 
 
7. Gender, Kinship and Agrarian Transitions in Vietnam 
Steffanie Scott, Danièle Bélanger, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, and Khuat Thu Hong 
 
8. Conclusion: For a Politics of Difference
Noemi Miyasaka Porro

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Globalization, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Gender-Biased Transportation Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa with Special Reference to Cameroon

Citation:

Njoh, Ambe J. 1999. “Gender-Biased Transportation Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa with Special Reference to Cameroon.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 34: 216–34.

Author: Ambe J. Njoh

Abstract:

The paper discusses transport problems facing women in Cameroon. Among major factors contributing to these problems are: societal attitudes, urban-biased development schemes, gender based discriminatory transport policies, inappropriate spatial organization, and negative trends in the country’s economy. The author argues that the uniqueness of women-specific transport problems warrants special and calculated action on the part of planners and policy makers in a developing nation such as Cameroon. Remedial steps, such as altering societal attitudes, lessening and simplifying women’s chores, promoting non-motorized modes of transport, reducing trip volume and length by, for instance, revamping antiquated zoning ordinances, and actively discouraging gender-based discrimination in public transportation through appropriate legislation, are suggested.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 1999

Need for a Gender-Sensitive Human Security Framework: Results of a Quantitative Study of Human Security and Sexual Violence in Djohong District, Cameroon

Citation:

Parmar, Parveen Kaur, Pooja Agrawal, Ravi Goyal, Jennifer Scott, and P. Gregg Greenough. 2014. “Need for a Gender-Sensitive Human Security Framework: Results of a Quantitative Study of Human Security and Sexual Violence in Djohong District, Cameroon.” Conflict and Health 8 (1): 6.

Authors: P. Gregg Greenough, Jennifer Scott, Ravi Goyal, Pooja Agrawal, Parveen Kaur Parmar

Abstract:

Background: Human security shifts traditional concepts of security from interstate conflict and the absence of war to the security of the individual. Broad definitions of human security include livelihoods and food security, health, psychosocial well-being, enjoyment of civil and political rights and freedom from oppression, and personal safety, in addition to absence of conflict. Methods: In March 2010, we undertook a population-based health and livelihood study of female refugees from conflict-affected Central African Republic living in Djohong District, Cameroon and their female counterparts within the Cameroonian host community. Embedded within the survey instrument were indicators of human security derived from the Leaning-Arie model that defined three domains of psychosocial stability suggesting individuals and communities are most stable when their core attachments to home, community and the future are intact. Results: While the female refugee human security outcomes describe a population successfully assimilated and thriving in their new environments based on these three domains, the ability of human security indicators to predict the presence or absence of lifetime and six-month sexual violence was inadequate. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the study demonstrates that common human security indicators do not uncover either lifetime or recent prevalence of sexual violence. Conclusions: These data suggest that current gender-blind approaches of describing human security are missing serious threats to the safety of one half of the population and that efforts to develop robust human security indicators should include those that specifically measure violence against women.

Keywords: sexual violence, human security, women's health, Cameroon, Central African Republic, refugee

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Livelihoods, Human Rights, Security, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic

Year: 2014

Land Governance and Women’s Rights in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Cameroon

Citation:

Fonjong, Lotsmart, Irene Sama-Lang, Lawrence Fombe, and Christiana Abonge. 2016. “Land Governance and Women’s Rights in Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Cameroon.” Development in Practice 26 (4): 420–30. doi:10.1080/09614524.2016.1162285.

Authors: Lotsmart Fonjong, Irene Sama-Lang, Lawrence Fombe, Christiana Abonge

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT

This article identifies and examines the role of actors involved in the process of large-scale land acquisitions in Cameroon. It is based on primary data from interviews conducted among principal actors. Findings reveal that government, chiefs, and to some extent elites, play key roles in formal and informal processes that grant land to investors. However, both processes neglect women and affected communities because there are no mechanisms to hold actors accountable to them, especially to women who depend on land for their livelihood. The article concludes that a legal framework that makes the process transparent and promotes accountability and gender inclusiveness is indispensable.

FRENCH ABSTRACT

Cet article identifie et examine le rôle des acteurs intervenant dans le processus des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle au Cameroun. Il se base sur des données primaires tirées d'entretiens menés parmi les acteurs principaux. Les conclusions révèlent que le gouvernement, les chefs et, dans une certaine mesure, les élites, jouent des rôles clés dans les processus formels et informels qui garantissent des terres aux investisseurs. Cependant, les deux processus négligent les femmes et les communautés touchées, parce qu'il n'y a pas de mécanismes conçus pour exiger des comptes aux acteurs, en particulier pour les femmes qui sont tributaires des terres pour gagner leur vie. Cet article conclut qu'un cadre juridique rendant le processus transparent et promouvant la redevabilité et l'inclusivité de genre est indispensable.

SPANISH ABSTRACT

El presente artículo identifica y examina el papel desempeñado por los actores implicados en el proceso de adquisición de latifundios en Camerún, basándose en datos primarios surgidos de entrevistas efectuadas con los actores principales. En este sentido, los hallazgos revelan que el gobierno, los caciques y, en cierta medida, las élites, juegan un rol importante en los procesos formales e informales a partir de los cuales se dota de tierras a los inversores. Tales procesos carecen de mecanismos que obliguen a los actores a rendir cuentas, especialmente a aquellas mujeres para quienes sus tierras son su medio de vida. Por esta razón, tanto éstas como las comunidades afectadas son ignoradas y pasadas por alto. El artículo concluye señalando que resulta indispensable crear un marco legal que dé transparencia al proceso, promoviendo la rendición de cuentas e integrando el enfoque de género.

Keywords: aid, accountability, gender, diversity, governace, public policy, Rights, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2016

Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs

Citation:

United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2010. Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectiveness Knowledge Briefs. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: United Nations Development Fund for Women

Abstract:

This series of knowledge briefs available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese has been produced on the basis of research carried out under the European Commission-supported programme ‘Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda’. 

The research, which was carried out in ten countries (Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Nepal, Mozambique, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) investigated how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies had been used in the context of aid modalities, such as general budget support (GBS) and sector budget support (SBS).

The research aimed to increase national partners’ and European Union decision-makers’ understanding of the opportunities for using GRB to ensure that aid contributes to the achievement of gender equality goals. The knowledge briefs aim to provide guidance on using GRB tools to integrate a gender dimension into new modalities of aid financing, so that these support the implementation of governments’ gender equality commitments. The target audiences are programmers and policy makers working for national governments, the European Commission, and bilateral donors.

The series consists of 5 separate briefs:

·Introduction to Gender Responsive Budgeting and Aid Effectivenes

· Guidance sheet on ‘How can aid be gender responsive in the context of the new aid modalities? Lessons from gender responsive budgeting initiatives’

· Brief on ‘How do donors collectively address gender issues in their aid management practices at country level?’

· Brief on ‘How do Individual donors address gender Issues in their policy, programming, and financing?’

· Summaries of country reports

 

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2010

Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda

Citation:

Budlender, Debbie. 2009. Ten-Country Overview Report: Integrating Gender Responsive Budgeting into the Aid Effectiveness Agenda. New York: The United Nations Development Fund for Women.

Author: Debbie Budlender

Abstract:

The following research reports (1 composite report and 10 country reports) have been generated as part of the UNIFEM programme,  "Integrating gender responsive budgeting into the aid effectiveness agenda”. The three-year programme funded by the European Commission (EC) was launched in 2008 and consists of research and programmatic technical assistance.

The programme seeks to demonstrate how gender responsive budgeting (GRB) tools and strategies contribute to enhancing a positive impact on gender equality of aid provided in the form of General Budget Support (GBS).

The first aspect of the programme involved research in ten developing countries to deepen the understanding of national partners and European Union (EU) decision makers of the opportunities for using GRB to enhance accountability to gender equality in the context of the aid effectiveness agenda. Concerned countries were Ethiopia, Peru, Tanzania, Uganda, Morocco, Nepal, India, Rwanda, Mozambique and Cameroon.

The second aspect of the programme will involve the selection of five countries in which targeted and tailored technical support will be provided in 2009 and 2010 to improve country capacity to further institutionalise GRB. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda

Year: 2009

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