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Brazil

Gendered Waters: The Participation of Women in the ‘One Million Cisterns’ Rainwater Harvesting Program in the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region

Citation:

de Moraes, Andrea Ferreira Jacques, and Cecilia Rocha. 2013. “Gendered Waters: The Participation of Women in the ‘One Million Cisterns’ Rainwater Harvesting Program in the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region.” Journal of Cleaner Production 60 (December): 163–9.

Authors: Andrea Ferreira Jacques de Moraes, Cecilia Rocha

Abstract:

Women, especially in developing countries, are often responsible for managing water at the household level. However, they are rarely represented in bodies that decide on water management, and they hardly play a role in the implementation of projects to increase water access. While the need for enhanced gender equity in water management is acknowledged in the international development discourse, the complexities of implementing it are poorly understood. This article presents a qualitative case study of women participation in the Program ‘One Million Cisterns’ in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region, to illustrate the promise and the challenges of bringing about women's participation and empowering. The case study shows that women not only derived significant material benefits from the program (access to water), they also acquired roles and responsibilities - as cistern builders and as members of local water commissions - that traditionally had been reserved for men. Key for this transformational process, we argue, was the role played by local feminist NGOs and social movements who helped rural women create new spaces for social inclusion in water development.

Keywords: water management, gender and development, Latin America, Brazil, Women and water, gender inequality, Rainwater harvesting

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

Mulheres rurais: tecendo novas relações e reconhecendo direitos

Citation:

Sales, Celecina de Maria Veras. 2007. “Mulheres rurais: tecendo novas relações e reconhecendo direitos.” Estudos Feministas 15 (2): 437-43.

Author: Celecina de Maria Veras Sales

Abstract:

A presença das mulheres rurais na produção agrícola familiar é um fato. Mesmo na invisibilidade, não se pode negar que elas estão ocupando terras, plantando, colhendo, e cultivando o desejo de ter uma terra livre e usufruí-la com seu trabalho. Presentes na casa, no quintal, na roça e na luta pela terra, as mulheres tiveram ainda de lutar pelo direito de serem reconhecidas como trabalhadoras. A emergência das mulheres rurais nos movimentos sociais proporcionou seu aparecimento como sujeito político, rompendo sua invisibilidade como trabalhadora. Nesse aprendizado e experimentação as mulheres rurais criaram seu próprio movimento, consolidado na década de 1980. Desde então realizam encontros nacionais, marchas e campanhas, criaram coletivos de mulheres e conquistaram direitos. Os Coletivos de Mulheres estão vinculados à Federação de Trabalhadores da Agricultura do Ceará (FETRAECE) ou ao Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST) e constituem espaços importantes de ressignificação das atividades produtivas das mulheres.

Keywords: mulher rural, participação política, grupos produtivos, movimentos sociais rurais

Topics: Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

Mulheres em áreas rurais nas regiões norte e nordeste do Brasil

Citation:

Cordeiro, Rosineide de LM, and Russel Parry Scott. 2007. “Mulheres em áreas rurais nas regiões norte e nordeste do Brasil.” Revista Estudos Feministas 15 (2): 419–23.

Authors: Rosineide de LM Cordeiro , Russel Parry Scott

Topics: Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

Gênero e agricultura: a situação da mulher na agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul

Citation:

Brumer, Anita. 2004. “Gênero e agricultura: a situação da mulher na agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul.” Revista Estudos Feministas 12 (1): 205–27.

Author: Anita Brumer

Abstract:

O texto examina as formas de inserção das mulheres na agricultura familiar, procurando explicar a seletividade de gênero do processo migratório. Primeiramente, aborda a distribuição da população, por sexo e por grupos de idade, em diversas regiões do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, caracterizando o maior índice de emigração de mulheres jovens do que dos demais grupos etários e de sexo. Depois, trata da divisão do trabalho por sexo e idade, dos efeitos da modernização sobre o trabalho agrícola, da inserção dos jovens no trabalho da unidade produtiva familiar, das atividades fora da agricultura e dos procedimentos utilizados pelos produtores agrícolas para a transmissão da propriedade rural para os filhos. Finalmente, discute o possível efeito do acesso das mulheres rurais à Previdência Rural sobre suas perspectivas de permanecer ou não na atividade agrícola. 

Keywords: gênero e agricultura, mulher rural, migração rural

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

Relações de gênero e subjetividades no devir MST

Citation:

Silva, Cristiani Bereta da. 2004. “Relações de gênero e subjetividades no devir MST.” Estudos Feministas 12 (1): 269–87.

Author: Cristiani Bereta da Silva

Abstract:

Os relatórios internos e as diversas e distintas publicações do e sobre o MST produzidos nos últimos 20 anos desvelam processos que permitem perceber que outras preocupações foram constituídas em meio às lutas e disputas pela conquista da terra. Essas preocupações foram mudando, adquirindo outros contornos nas idas e vindas da produção de idéias, práticas e sujeitos de um Movimento em construção. Este estudo é um exercício crítico de reflexão sobre a natureza dessas produções nas relações cotidianas, nas tentativas de construir sujeitos militantes. Busca investigar como as mudanças foram sendo construídas e de que forma foram investidas sobre as relações de trabalho, sociais, políticas e, também, afetivas de mulheres e homens, bem como de homens e homens, e de mulheres e mulheres nas dobras do MST.

Keywords: movimentos sociais, gênero, sujeito, subjetividades

Topics: Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

O Gênero da Posse da Terra: um estudo sobre o poder de negociação de mulheres titulares de lotes via reforma agrária

Citation:

Barbosa, Maria L. D. A., and Débora F. Lerrer. 2016. “O Gênero da Posse da Terra: um estudo sobre o poder de negociação de mulheres titulares de lotes via reforma agrária.” Revista Brasileira de Sociologia 4 (8): 243–74.

Authors: Maria L. D. A. Barbosa, Débora F. Lerrer

Abstract:

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Ocupar terras, ser assentada via política de reforma agrária e ser titular do lote é um fato que raramente ocorre na trajetória da maioria das mulheres do campo. Este estudo, com pesquisa realizada no Assentamento Santa Rosa/Córrego das Posses, localizado na região do Vale do Mucuri em Minas Gerais/Brasil, teve como foco verificar se e como o direito e a posse da terra reposicionam as mulheres em âmbito doméstico e público, isto é, se conferem a elas maior poder de barganha. A literatura aponta que a construção de igualdades reais para as mulheres rurais está vinculada à conquista da posse da terra. O caso estudado apontou que a posse influencia as possibilidades de negociação das mulheres, mas, sobretudo, quando é operada concomitantemente a outras dimensões, como a renda, divisão sexual do trabalho, relações sociais e família.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Occupying, settling on the basis of agrarian land reform policies, and holding title of the land are not common facts in the trajectory of most rural women. This research examines if and how having rights to land leads to changes in the bargaining power of women, both domestically and in public sphere. The fieldwork was carried out in the Settlement Santa Rosa/Córrego das Posses, in the Mucuri valley, Minas Gerais. The case under study shows that such rights influence the capacity of women for negotiation, particularly when combined with changes in other dimensions, such as income, the sexual division of labor, social relations, and the family.

Keywords: relações de gênero, posse da terra, assentamento, gender relations, land tenure, settlement

Topics: Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2016

Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges

Citation:

Cornwall, Andrea, Elizabeth Harrison, and Ann Whitehead. 2007. Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges. Zed Books.

Authors: Andrea Cornwall, Elizabeth Harrison, Anna Whitehead

Annotation:

Summary:
The political project of reasserting feminist engagement with development has proceeded uneasily in recent years. This text examines how the arguments of feminist researchers have often become depoliticised by development institutions and offers accounts of the pitfalls and compromises of the politics of engagement (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender myths that instrumentalise women : a view from the Indian frontline
Srilatha Batliwala and Deepa Dhanraj
 
2. Dangerous equations? : how female-headed households became the poorest of the poor : causes, consequences and cautions
Sylvia Chant
 
3. Back to women? translations, re-significations, and myths of gender in policy and practice in Brazil
Cecilia Sardenberg
 
4. Battles over booklets : gender myths in the British aid programme
Rosalind Eyben
 
5. Not very poor, powerless or pregnant : the African woman forgotten by development
Everjoice Win
 
6. 'Streetwalkers show the way' : reframing the debate on trafficking from sex workers' perspective
Nandinee Bandyopadhyay with Swapna Gayen [and others]
 
7. Gender, myth and fable : the perils of mainstreaming in sector bureaucracies
Hilary Standing
 
8. Making sense of gender in shifting institutional contexts : some reflections on gender mainstreaming
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
9. Gender mainstreaming : what is it (about) and should we continue doing it?
Prudence Woodford-Berger
 
10. Mainstreaming gender or 'streaming' gender away : feminists marooned in the development business
Maitrayee Mukhopadhay
 
11. Critical connections : feminist studies in African contexts
Amina Mama
 
12. SWApping gender : from cross-cutting obscurity to sectoral security?
Anne Marie Goetz and Joanne Sandler
 
13. The NGO-ization of Arab Women's Movements
Islah Jad
 
14. Political fiction meets gender myth : post-conflict reconstruction, 'democratisation' and women's rights
Deniz Kandiyoti
 
15. Re-assessing paid work and women's empowerment : lessons from the global economy
Ruth Pearson
 
16. Announcing a new dawn prematurely? human rights feminists and the rights based approaches to development
Dzodzi Tsikata
 
17. The chimera of success : gender ennui and the changed international policy environment
Maxine Molyneux.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, International Financial Institutions, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Brazil, India, United Kingdom

Year: 2007

Peasant Mining Production as a Development Strategy: The Case of Women in Gold Mining in The Brazilian Amazon

Citation:

Graulau, Jeannette. 2001. “Peasant Mining Production as a Development Strategy: The Case of Women in Gold Mining in The Brazilian Amazon.” Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y Del Caribe, no. 71: 71–106.

Author: Jeannette Graulau

Annotation:

"The purpose of this research is to establish the grounds for a critical social scientific analysis of mineral development based upon the case study of women in informal peasant gold mining or garimpagem in the Brazilian Amazon. Situated at the local/regional level of analysis, this case study illustrates the main tensions of contemporary mineral development. First, the region's mineral development paths appear as a result of the application of liberal and neo-liberal economic policies of modernization and liberalization of primary export sectors and late on import substituting industrialization...In the second place, intersecting and conflictive discourses of local, national, and international mineral development drive regional production. Nationally owned mining companies, subsidiaries of multinational corporations, and formal and informal small-scale mining enterprises fight against each other for legitimate 'rights' over land management and mineral extraction...Third, historically dispossessed female peasantry of North, Centre, South Eastern Amazon and North East Brazil, compete against national and multinational mining firms in the extraction of minerals, mainly gold and semi-precious stones" (Graulau, 2001, p. 71).

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2001

Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Citation:

Tsikata, Dzodzi, and Pamela Golah. 2010. Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Dzodzi Tsikata, Pamela Golah

Abstract:

Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. A central theme is the people's resistance to global forces, frequently through an insistence on the uniqueness of their livelihoods." "For instance, in the Amazon, the focus is on the social movements that have emerged in the context of struggles over land rights concerning the extraction of Brazil nuts and babatu kernels in an increasingly globalised market. In Viet Nam, the process of 'de-collectivising' rights to land is examined with a view to understanding ho* gender and other social differences are reworked in a market economy." "The book addresses a gap in the literature on land tenure and gender in developing countries. It raises new questions about the process of globalisation, particularly about who the actors are (local people, the state, NGOs, multinational companies) and the shifting relations amongst them. The book also challenges the very concepts of gender, land and globalisation. (Abstract from WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
2. Gender, Land Tenure and Globalisation: Exploring the Conceptual Ground
 Fiona D. Mackenzie 
 
3. Gender, Globalisation and Land Tenure: Methodological Challenges and Insights
Allison Goebel
 
4. Economic Liberalisation, Changing Resource Tenures and Gendered Livelihoods: A Study of Small-Scale Gold Mining and Mangrove Exploitation in Rural Ghana
Mariama Awumbila and Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
5. The Politics of Gender, Land and Compensation in Communities Traversed by the Chad- Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project in Cameroon
Joyce B.M. Endeley
 
6. Facing Globalisation: Gender and Land at Stake in the Amazonian Forests of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru 
Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Luciene Dias Figueiredo, Elda Vera Gonzalez, Sissy Bello Nakashima and Alfredo Wagner B. de Almeida 
 
7. Gender, Kinship and Agrarian Transitions in Vietnam 
Steffanie Scott, Danièle Bélanger, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, and Khuat Thu Hong 
 
8. Conclusion: For a Politics of Difference
Noemi Miyasaka Porro

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Globalization, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2010

Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil

Citation:

Perry, Keisha-Khan Y. 2013. Black Women against the Land Grab: The Fight for Racial Justice in Brazil. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Author: Keisha-Khan Y. Perry

Abstract:

In Brazil and throughout the African diaspora, black women, especially poor black women, are rarely considered leaders of social movements let alone political theorists. But in the northeastern city of Salvador, Brazil, it is these very women who determine how urban policies are established. Focusing on the Gamboa de Baixo neighborhood in Salvador's city center, Black Women against the Land Grab explores how black women's views on development have radicalized local communities to demand justice and social change. In Black Women against the Land Grab, Keisha-Khan Y. Perry describes the key role of local women activists in the citywide movement for land and housing rights. She reveals the importance of geographic location for understanding the gendered aspects of urban renewal and the formation of black women-led social movements. How have black women shaped the politics of urban redevelopment, Perry asks, and what does this kind of political intervention tell us about black women's agency? Her work uncovers the ways in which political labor at the neighborhood level is central to the mass mobilization of black people against institutional racism and for citizenship rights and resources in Brazil. Highlighting the political life of black communities, specifically those in urban contexts often represented as socially pathological and politically bankrupt, Black Women against the Land Grab offers a valuable corrective to how we think about politics and about black women, particularly poor black women, as a political force.

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation, Race Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2013

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