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Bolivia

Women, Men, and the Legal Languages of Mining in the Colonial Andes

Citation:

Bigelow, Allison Margaret. 2016. “Women, Men, and the Legal Languages of Mining in the Colonial Andes.” Ethnohistory 63 (2): 351–80. doi:10.1215/00141801-3455347.

Author: Allison Margaret Bigelow

Abstract:

Histories of colonial Latin American mining have cemented the image of a scientifically backward society whose pursuit of easy wealth sacrificed the lives of indigenous and African miners in places like Potosí. By examining a mid-seventeenth-century mine dispute between an Andean woman and a Spanish man, this article suggests how legal archives can reveal indigenous women’s contributions to the history of colonial silver. It also provides an appendix with one hundred cases of indigenous, creole, and Spanish women miners, refiners, and managers in Alto Perú, 1559–1801, suggesting how women of different socioeconomic and technical backgrounds participated in the silver industry.

Keywords: colonial science, technical literacies, law, gender, Andes

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia, Peru

Year: 2016

Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005

Citation:

Mercier, L., and J. Gier-Viskovatoff. 2006. Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: L. Mercier, J. Gier-Viskovatoff

Abstract:

This book explores gender relations and women's work and activism in different parts of the world. It also explores the subject from multiple perspectives and links each of these not only to cultural and domestic arrangements but also to an emerging industrial and capitalist system from the Eighteenth through the Twentieth centuries. (Abstract from Palgrave Macmillan)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Mercier, Laurie et al.
 
2. Mining Women, Royal Slaves: Copper Mining in Colonial Cuba, 1670–1780
Díaz, María Elena
 
3. Making a Difference in Colonial Interventionism in Gold Mining in Wassa Fiase, Gold Coast (Ghana): The Activism of Two Women, 1874–1893
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena O.
 
4. Lifting the Layers of the Mountain’s Petticoats: Mining and Gender in Potosí’s Pachamama
Absi, Pascale
 
5. Kamins Building the Empire: Class, Caste, and Gender Interface in Indian Collieries
Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala
 
6. Sociability, Solidarity, and Social Exclusion: Women’s Activism in the South Wales Coalfield, ca. 1830 to 1939
Jones, Rosemary
 
7. Gender Relations in Iron Mining Communities in Sweden, 1900–1940
Blomberg, Eva
 
8. Invisible Labor: A Comparative Oral History of Women in Coal Mining Communities of Hokkaido, Japan, and Montana, USA, 1890–1940
Yoshida, Kayoko (et al.)
 
9. Coal Mining Women Speak Out: Economic Change and Women Miners of Chikuho, Japan
Sone, Sachiko
 
10. “I’m a Johnny Mitchell Man”: Gender and Labor Protest in the Pennsylvania Hard Coal Uprising, 1900–1902
Stepenoff, Bonnie
 
11. Violence and the Colorado National Guard: Masculinity, Race, Class, and Identity in the 1913–1914 Southern Colorado Coal Strike
DeStefanis, Anthony
 
12. “I Hate to Be Calling Her a Wife Now”: Women and Men in the Salt of the Earth Strike, 1950–1952
Baker, Ellen
 
13. Godless Communists and Faithful Wives, Gender Relations and the Cold War: Mine Mill and the 1958 Strike against the International Nickel Company
Steedman, Mercedes
 
14. Just a Housewife? Miners’ Wives between Household and Work in Postwar Germany
Jung, Yong-Sook
 
15. Women into Mining Jobs at Inco: Challenging the Gender Division of Labor
Keck, Jennifer (et al.)
 
16. From Ludlow to Camp Solidarity: Women, Men, and Cultures of Solidarity in U.S. Coal Communities, 1912–1990
Guerin-Gonzales, Camille
 
17. Epilogue
Gier, Jaclyn J.

Topics: Caste, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Bolivia, Cuba, Ghana, India, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2006

Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Perez Fragoso, Lucia, and Corina Rodriguez Enriquez. 2016. “Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/153. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lucia Perez Fragoso, Corina Rodriguez Enriquez

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to fiscal policy and administration that integrates considerations of women's equality and advancement into the budget. Latin American countries have undertaken diverse gender budgeting initiatives, most of them addressing public expenditures. This paper surveys and assesses some key initiatives, including those in Mexico, Mexico City, Ecuador, Bolivia, and El Salvador, and briefly summarizes others. The five key initiatives offer different perspectives on how countries approach gender budgeting. We find that these initiatives are contributing to the reduction of gender inequality and the advancement of women in Latin America, though there is scope to strengthen them.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, Latin America, gender inequality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico

Year: 2016

Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Citation:

Tsikata, Dzodzi, and Pamela Golah. 2010. Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Dzodzi Tsikata, Pamela Golah

Abstract:

"Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. A central theme is the people's resistance to global forces, frequently through an insistence on the uniqueness of their livelihoods." "For instance, in the Amazon, the focus is on the social movements that have emerged in the context of struggles over land rights concerning the extraction of Brazil nuts and babatu kernels in an increasingly globalised market. In Viet Nam, the process of 'de-collectivising' rights to land is examined with a view to understanding ho* gender and other social differences are reworked in a market economy." "The book addresses a gap in the literature on land tenure and gender in developing countries. It raises new questions about the process of globalisation, particularly about who the actors are (local people, the state, NGOs, multinational companies) and the shifting relations amongst them. The book also challenges the very concepts of gender, land and globalisation" (WorldCat).

Annotation:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword - Ann Whitehead pg. vii

Chapter 1. Introduction - Dzodzi Tsikata pg. 1

Chapter 2. Gender, Land Tenure and Globalisation: Exploring the Conceptual Ground - Fiona D. Mackenzie pg. 35

Chapter 3. Gender, Globalisation and Land Tenure: Methodological Challenges and Insights - Allison Goebel pg. 70

Chapter 4. Economic Liberalisation, Changing Resource Tenures and Gendered Livelihoods: A Study of Small-Scale Gold Mining and Mangrove Exploitation in Rural Ghana - Mariama Awumbila and Dzodzi Tsikata pg. 98

Chapter 5. The Politics of Gender, Land and Compensation in Communities Traversed by the Chad- Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project in Cameroon - Joyce B.M. Endeley pg. 145

Chapter 6. Facing Globalisation: Gender and Land at Stake in the Amazonian Forests of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru - Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Luciene Dias Figueiredo, Elda Vera Gonzalez, Sissy Bello Nakashima and Alfredo Wagner B. de Almeida pg. 180

Chapter 7. Gender, Kinship and Agrarian Transitions in Vietnam - Steffanie Scott, Danièle Bélanger, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, and Khuat Thu Hong pg. 228

Chapter 8. Conclusion: For a Politics of Difference - Noemi Miyasaka Porro pg. 271

Notes on Contributors pg. 295

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Globalization, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2010

States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America

Citation:

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2015. “States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America.” Latin American Politics and Society 57 (3): 27–49. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2015.00278.x.

Author: Jennifer M. Piscopo

Abstract:

This article examines two decades of strengthening, expansion, and diffusion of gender quota laws in Latin America. The analysis departs from studies of quotas’ adoption, numerical effectiveness, or policy impacts, instead focusing on states’ use of coercive power to integrate women into public and private institutions. Viewing these policies in light of feminist theories of the poststructuralist state reveals how state institutions act to restructure government and promote gender equality. In building this argument, the article presents an up-to-date empirical survey and conceptual understanding of quota evolution in Latin America, including recent developments in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Quotas Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay

Year: 2015

Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia

Citation:

Hippert, Christine. 2011. “Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6): 498–508. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.07.004.

Author: Christine Hippert

Abstract:

This paper examines Bolivian popular participation as a gendered process. By comparing and contrasting ethnographic examples of development work in a rural community, this article examines participation in its cultural context and engages indigenous conceptions of participation, gender, and development. Contrary to research and popular assumptions, this study demonstrates that women are extremely visible in development contexts. But poor rural women appeal to more holistic understandings of development that are predicated upon the understanding of women's roles as wives and partners in relationships with poor, indigenous men — another vulnerable, but untargeted, group. In order to foster inclusion, collaboration, and engagement in popular participation, women attempt to both maintain conventional gender norms at the same time that they struggle to transform them. This case study shows that development work is identity work, or the negotiation of varied perceptions of appropriate gendered identities to successfully target groups for development attention or funding. Because of its inattention to the intersectionality of class, ethnicity, and gender and how these positionalities are negotiated in development work, gender mainstreaming has had little effect on rural women's lives except to overburden them.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2011

Solidarity Economy for Development and Women's Emancipation: Lessons from Bolivia

Citation:

Hillenkamp, Isabelle. 2015. “Solidarity Economy for Development and Women’s Emancipation: Lessons from Bolivia.” Development and Change 46 (5): 1133–58. doi:10.1111/dech.12193.

Author: Isabelle Hillenkamp

Abstract:

This article critically assesses the relationship between the solidarity economy (SE) and women's emancipation through a case study of SE groups in El Alto, Bolivia. It highlights the fact that the failure to harness the potential of SE as a development alternative and as a means for the emancipation of women can partly be attributed to the neglect of gender-related issues in the study of SE. Following an examination of SE in the Bolivian context of class and ethnicity, the article deepens the analysis by focusing on gender. It shows that the significant participation of women in SE is a response to the double imperative imposed by the current processes of monetization of production and home-based reproduction. Compared with their insertion into the market individually, participation in SE allows women to increase and smooth their income. In general, however, their income remains lower than that of men and also below the poverty line. This reflects a continuing gender asymmetry and points to the limitations to what solidarity among poor women can achieve. The article concludes with an assessment of the possibilities as well as the difficulties inherent in a new pathway to women's emancipation through SE, a pathway which would necessitate a reorganization of the social sphere of reproduction.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2015

Development Alternatives

Citation:

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. “Development Alternatives.” Development and Change 46 (4): 855–74. doi:10.1111/dech.12179.

Author: Sarah A. Radcliffe

Abstract:

Development alternatives arguably emerge out of practices, negotiations and critiques of dominant development narratives and paradigms. Critical Development Studies’ (CDS) practices of insightful critique and a willingness to challenge hegemonic paradigms are alive and well. Yet this article argues that CDS could fruitfully pay attention to emergent issues that have yet to receive sustained analysis and critique. The article focuses on three very different registers of development futures: evolutionary and resilience-base thinking; post-neoliberal experiments in Latin America; and the challenge of social heterogeneity. After summarizing the issues involved with respect to each topic, the article suggests some aspects that require further research and debate.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, Venezuela

Year: 2015

Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others

Citation:

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala, and Martha Macintyre, eds. 2006. Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Authors: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt, Martha Macintyre

Abstract:

"Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines" (Abstract from WorldCat).

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered - Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt and Martha Macintyre
 
1. Reconstructing Gendered Histories of Mines: Women miners here and there, now and then
Gill Burke
 
2. Japanese Coal Mining: Women Discovered
Sachiko Sone
 
3. Race, Gender and the Tin-Mining Industry in Malaya, 1900-1950
Amarjit Kaur
 
4. Patriarchy, Colonialism and Capitalism Unearthing the History of Adivasi Women Miners of Chotanagpur
Shashank S. Sinha
 
5. Gender and Ethnic Identities in the Mines: Digging through Layers of Class, Gender and Ethnicity: Korean Women Miners in Prewar Japan 
W. Donald Smith
 
6. Women Working in the Mining Industry in PNG: a Case Study from Lihir Martha Macintyre
 
7. Traditional Small-Scale Miners: Women Miners of the Philippines
Evelyn J. Caballero
 
8. Mining Gender at Work in the Indian Collieries: Identity Construction
Kamins and Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt
 
9. Gender in the Mining Economies: The Place of Women in Mining in the Cordillera Region, Philippines
Minerva Chaloping-March
 
10. Women in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Africa
Jennifer J. Hinton and Barbara E. Hinton and Marcello M. Veiga
 
11. Women in the Mining Industry of Contemporary China 
Linqing Yao
 
12. Women in Small-Scale Gold Mining in Papua New Guinea 
Geoff Crispin
 
13. The Invisible Work of Women in the Small Mines of Bolivia 
Els Van Hoecke
 
14. Global Processes, Local Resistances: Gendered Labour in Peripheral Tropical Frontiers: Women, Mining and Capital Accumulation in Post-Development Amazonia 
Jeannette Graulau
 
15. Women Miners, Human Rights and Poverty 
Ingrid Macdonald
 
16. Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): Stories of Struggles of Women Workers in Bhowra Colliery, India
Lindsay Barnes
 
17. Globalization and Women's Work in the Mine Pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women Regions: Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Bolivia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines

Year: 2006

Gender Dimensions of Community-Managed Water Systems

Citation:

Salimi, Kate. 2015. “Gender Dimensions of Community-Managed Water Systems: Gender-Water Realities in Peri-Urban Cochabamba, Bolivia.” Thesis, Université d’Ottawa / University of Ottawa.

Author: Kate Salimi

Abstract:

This thesis examines women’s participation in community-managed water systems in peri-urban Cochabamba, Bolivia based on fieldwork conducted from June-August 2013. Informed by a Feminist political ecology framework, this thesis demonstrates that there are key gendered differences in experiences with water because women are the primary managers of water in the home, and their labour, time and livelihoods are significantly impacted by the lack of safe water. By unearthing women’s experiences and opinions from a number of water committees, networked systems of water should be considered part of a ‘feminist agenda’ as having access to networked water systems decreases women’s physical workloads and the costs of household water.  However, while networked water systems are not perfect from a gendered perspective as male community members hold most of the decision-making positions, alliances with progressive NGOs play an important role within Cochabamba’s waterscape as they promote a politics of equity and encourage women to see themselves as vocal subjects, able to define and defend their gender interests.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2015

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